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Interdisiplinaryong Lapit

(Istatistika ng gamit ng wika)

(Wika at realidad, wika at kahulugan ng salita)

(Wika at identidad/etnisidad)

(Wika at batas)
(Istatistika ng gamit ng wika)
Kompyutasyunal na
Computational linguistics is the application of computer
science to the analysis, synthesis and comprehension of
written and spoken language.

Computational linguistics is the ability for a computing

engine to read a document and extract data or to infer
knowledge from it based on linguistic structure.

Computational linguistic combines resources from

linguistics and computer science to discover how
human language work.
Kompyutasyunal na
Computational Linguist teach computers how to
understand regular human language.

Computational Linguist research how humans learn,

develop, and use language, then device a way to
mimic those processes in computers.

Computational Linguist study the rules of language-

spelling, syntax, grammar, punctuation, and semantics
and working with software developers to create
computer programs capable of following those rules in
order to understand and generate natural speech.
The period of greatest interest of Computational linguistics
was from about 1955 to 1965.

When researchers undertook project that would lead to

computerized or mechanical translation involving
grammatical and semantic analysis sentence.

Support for research in mechanical translation diminished

after it became apparent that the problem of producing
automatic translation of high quality was far more difficult
than it had been thought to be.

Techniques develop computational linguistics have been

used in other fields; e.g., the study of style in literature often
uses frequency counts of language elements, and
information retrieval usually makes use of automatated
grammatical analysis.
The Technological. To enable computers to analyze
and process natural language.

The Psychological. To model human language

processing on computer.
The Technological
-Speech Recognition
-Speech synthesis
-natural language interfaces to software
-document retrieval and information extraction
from written text
-machine translation
Speech Recognition.
Is the ability of a machine or
program to identify words and
phrases in spoken language
and convert them to a
machine-readable format.
Speech Synthesis.
Is artificial simulation of human
speech with computer or other
device. The counterpart of the
voice recognition, speech synthesis
is mostly use for translating text
information into audio information
and in applications such voice-
enabled services and mobile
Natural Language Interface Software.
Provides natural human-like
interaction with any application. This
makes the work effective, as it
eliminates the necessity to study
special syntax of queries.
Document Retrieval and Information
Extraction from Written Text.
For example, a computer system
could scan newspaper, articles,
looking for information about events
of a particular type and enter the
information into a database.
Machine Translation (MT).
Refers to fully automated
software that can translate
source content into target
The Psychological

Is a natural language conversation
program described by Joseph
Weizenbaum in January 1966. It
features the dialog between a
human user and a computer
program representing a mock
Some Companies
which Employ
Computational Linguist
(Wika at realidad, wika at
kahulugan ng salita)
Pilosopiya ng Wika
Philosophy of Language is the reasoned inquiry
into the origins of language, the nature of
meaning, the usage and cognition of language,
and the relationship between language and

Philosophy of Language investigates the nature of

human language, its origins and use, the
relationship between meaning and truth and how
language relates to human thought and
understanding as well as to reality itself.
Philosophy of Language refers to an area of
philosophy concerned with the syntactic
properties as well as meaning and reference of
linguistic expression, the things implied or
indicated by linguistic expression and attributes of
linguistic expressions as a function of linguistic and
conversation context.
Early inquiry into language can be traced back as long as 1500
B.C in India.

Long before any systematic description of language, and there

were various schools of thought discussing linguistic issues in early
medieval Indian Philosophy. (roughly between 5th to 10th
Centuries A.D)

In the Western tradition, the early work was covered by Plato,

Aristotle and the Stoics of Ancient Greece.

Plato generally considered that the names of things are

determined by nature, with each phoneme representing basic
ideas or sentiments, and that convention has only small parts to
Aristotle held that the meaning of a predicate is
established through an abstraction of the similarities
between various individual things.

His assumption that these similarities are constituted by a

real commonality of form however also makes him a
proponent of moderate realism.

The Stoic philosophers made important contributions to

the analysis of grammar, distinguishing five parts of
speech (nouns, verbs, appellatives, conjunction and
articles), lekton, and proposition.
The scholastics of the Medieval era were greatly
interested in the subtleties of language and its usage.

Provoked to some extent by the necessity of translating

Greek text into Latin with Peter Abelard, William of
Ockham and John Dun Scotus.

They considered Logic to be a “science of language”

and anticipated many of the most interesting problems
of modern Philosophy of Language.

Including the phenomena of vagueness and ambiguity,

the doctrines of proper and improper supposition, and
the study of categorematic and syncategorematic
words and terms.
Linguist of the Renaissance period were particularly interested
in the idea of a philosophical language (or universal

Spurred on by the gradual discovery in the west of Chinese

characters and Egyptians hieroglyphics.

Language finally began to play a more central role in Western

philosophy in the late 19th Century and even more so in the 20th

Especially after the publication of “Cours de linguistique

generale” by Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913).

In the 20th Century philosophy as a whole was understood to

be purely matter of Philosophy of Language.
Two Types of
Linguistic Philosopher
Analytical Philosophers. Who are concerned with the
nature of meaning, language use, language
cognition, and the relationship between language
and reality.

Continental Philosophers. Who focus on how the

communication through language impacts social
realities, and in some cases, metaphysical realities.
The Nature
of Meaning
aso puno


Hannifa Angkay Mharjune Retardo

Two Types of
Linguistic Meaning

Geoffrey Leech
Conceptual meaning of an expression have to do with
the definitions of words themselves, and the features of
those definitions which can be treated using semantic
feature analysis.

The Associative meaning of an expression has to do with

individual mental understanding of the speaker, and
which may be connotative, collocative, social, affective,
reflected and thematic.
Different Approaches
Linguistic Meaning
Idea Theories. Which claim that meanings are purely
mental contents provoked by signs.
John Locke, George
Berkeley at David Hume

Truth-Conditional Theories. Which hold meanings to be

the conditions under which an expression may be true
or false.
Gottlob Frege

Use Theories. Which understand meaning to involve or

belated to speech acts and particular utterances, not
the expression themselves.
Ludwig Wittgenstein and his
Communitarian view of language
Reference Theories (or semantic externalism). Which view
meaning to be equivalent to those things in the world
that are actually connected to signs.
Tyler Burge at Saul Kripke

Verificationist theories. Which associate the meaning of a

sentence with its method of verification o falsification.
Logical Positivist

Pragmatist theories. Which maintain that the meaning or

understanding of a sentence is determined by the
consequences of its application.
C.S Pierce and other Pragmatist
Sometimes define as “aboutness”.

Some things are about other things (e.g. a belief

can be about icebergs, but an iceberg is not about
anything; a book or a film can be about Paris, but
Paris itself is not about anything).

Intentionality is the term for this feature that

certain mental states have of being directed at
objects and states of affairs in the real world.
Franz Brentano (1838-1917),
claimed that all and only
mental phenomena exhibit
intentionality, which he saw as
proof that mental phenomena
could not be the same things
as, or a species of, physical
phenomena (often called
Brentano’s irreducibility thesis.
J.L. Austin (1911-1960) and John Searle
(1932-) have posed the question : how
does the mind and the language that
we used, impose intentionality on
objects that are not intrinsically
intentional? How do mental states
represent, and how do they make
objects represent? the real world.
Austin solution is in his theory of speech acts, and Searle’s related
solution is in his theory of speech acts, in which language is seen as a
form of action and human behavior, so that by saying something we
actually do some something.

Combining wit this idea with intentionality, Searle’s concludes that

action themselves have a kind intentionality.
How language interacts with the world?
Gottlob Frege was an advocate of a mediated reference theory,
which posits that words refer to something in the external world, but
insists that there is more to the meaning of name than simply the
object to which it refers.

Frege divided the semantic content of every expression(including

sentences) into two components: Sinn (usually translated as “sense”)
and Bedeutung ( “meaning”, “ denotation” or “reference”).

The sense of a sentence is the abstract, universal and objective

thought that it expresses, but also the mode of presentation of the
object that it refers to.

The reference is the object or objects in the real world that words pick
out, and represents a truth value (the Truth or the False).
John Stuart Mill believed in a type of direct reference theory, whereby the
meaning of an expression lies in what it points out in the world.

He identified two components to consider for most terms of a language:

denotation (the literal meaning of a word or term) and connotation ( the
subject cultural and/or emotional coloration attached to a word or term).

According to Mill, proper names (such as of people of places) have only a

denotation and no connotation, and that a sentence which refers to a
mythical creature, for example, has no meaning ( and is neither true nor false)
because it has no referent in the real world.
Bertnard Russell a Descriptivist of sorts, in that he held that the
meanings (or semantic contents) of names are identical to the
descriptions associated with them by speakers and a contextually
appropriate description can be substituted for the name.

Saul Kripke (1940- ) argued against Descriptivism on the grounds that

names are rigid designators and refer to the same individual in every
possible world in which that individual exists.
The principle asserts that a sentence can be
understood on a basis of the meaning of the parts of
the sentence along with an understanding of its
Two General
Methods of
the Parts
Syntactic Trees. Focus on the words of a sentence with the grammar of
the sentence in mind.

Semantic Trees. Focus on the role of the meaning of the words and
how those meaning combine.
Learning ang
There are three main schools of thought on the
issue of language learning.
Behaviorism. Which holds that bulk of language is learned via

Hypothesis Testing. Which holds that learning occurs through the

postulation and testing of hypotheses, through the use of general
faculty of intelligence.
Innatism. Which holds that at least some of the syntactic setting are
innate and hardwired, based on certain models of the mind.
Varying Notions
of the Structure
of the Brain
when it comes to
Connectionist models emphasize the idea that a person's lexicon and their
thoughts operate in a kind of distributed, associative network.

Nativist models assert that there are specialized devices in the brain that are
dedicated to language acquisition.

Computation models emphasize the notion of a representational language

of thought and the logic-like, computational processing that the mind
performs over them.

Emergentist models focus on the notion that natural faculties are a complex
system that emerge out of simpler biological parts.

Reductionist models attempt to explain higher level mental processes in

terms of the basic low-level neurophysiological activity of the brain.
Pulitika ng Wika
(Wika at batas)
na Linggwistika
na Linggwista
The result of this analysis can be used by many
different professionals.

Police Officers can use this evidence not only for
interview witnesses and suspects more effectively
but also to solve crimes more reliably.
Lawyers, Judge and Jury members can use this
analysis to help evaluate questions of guilt and
innocence more fairly

Translator and Interpreters can use this

research to communicate with greataest
More than forty years ago Jan Svartvik, a linguistic expert
show dramatically just how helpful Forensic Linguistic can
It’s analysis involved the transcript of a police interview of
Timothy Evans a man who had been found guilty of
murdering his wife and his baby daughter in 1949.

Svartvik demonstrated that part of the transcript differed

considerably grammatical style when he compared than
the rest of the recorded interview.

It was later discovered, after Evans had been convicted

and executed for double murdered, that both victims had
actually been murdered by Evan’s landlord John Christie.
On the basic of this research and other facts, the courts
ruled that Evans had been wrongly accused.

Unfortunately, Evans had already been executed in

1950. However, thanks to Svartvik, 6 years later he was
officially pardoned and his name was cleared.

Svartvik worked is considered today to be one of the first

major cases in Forensic Linguistic was used to achieve
justice in court of law.

Today, Forensic Linguistics is well established

internationally recognized independent Field of study.
Major Areas
The following video show’s how
Forensic Linguistics can be used by
law enforcement to help them
identify suspects and bring criminal
to justice.
Today, Forensic Linguistics can usefully be divided into
three district areas of investigation.

The Language of Written Legal Text. Linguist are

interested in both the arcane vocabulary, complicated
grammar and infrequent punctuation which typifies
many legal text and the consequent problems lay
readers have with these text.

The spoken Language. Linguists examine the nature of

police interviews with suspects, the specialized rules
which govern interaction in courts law, the problems
created for vulnerable witnesses and difficulties
experienced by those who do not speak the language
of the court.
The Linguist as Expert witness. Linguist express opinions
of the confusability of rival trademarks, on the
authorship of documents, on the meaning of words
and expressions and on the place of origin of asylum
seekers to name a few.
Violent Crimes
-suicide letters written by famous artist like Kurt Cobain

-ransom notes connected to Charles Lindbergh(the firtst

pilot who managed to cross the atlantic flying from New
York to Paris) whose son was kidnapped and later found
dead in the backyard of Lindbergh family home

-a kidnapping note discovered after the disappearance

of Jon Benet Ramsey

-a child beauty queen who was reported missing by her

family and later found dead in the family cellar
Non-Violent Crime
-legal suit Beatles Apple Corp. brought against Steven
Jobs’s Apple Inc.

-JK Rowling’ Harry Potter and Dan Brown’s The Da Vinci

(Wika at identidad/etnisidad)