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Using the Input Devices

Summary of Previous Lecture

 Parts of Computer Systems


 Computer Hardware
 Processor, Memory

 Software system
 Application software, system software, utility
programs
 Data
 User
 Information Processing cycle
Today’s Objectives

• Identify the five key groups on a standard computer


keyboard.

• Describe the purpose of a mouse and the role it


plays in computing.

• Identify the five essential techniques for using a


mouse.

• Identify three common variants of the mouse.

• How to reduce stress injuries from computer use


The Keyboard
The Keyboard
 A computer keyboard is a hardware device that functions in
accordance to the instructions made by the user. It
comprises circuits, switches and processors that help in
transferring keystroke messages to the computer.

 Keyboard skill is call Keyboarding.

 Keyboard connector
 Keyboards are generally plugged into the rear of the
CPU, on the motherboard, using a purple PS/2
connector, or on USB port.
What is Keyboarding?

 The ability to enter text by using the correct fingers


without looking at the keys (also known as touch typing).

 Having adequate keyboarding skills to enable you to use


the computer more effectively and be more productive.
The Keyboard

 In today's technology driven world, everyone is aware


about computing and the usage of computer keyboard.
We all know that keyboard is an input device that
functions in accordance to the instructions of the user.

 Computer keyboards are used for performing various


tasks such as typing on a word processor or text editor,
accessing menus and playing games. Though pressing a
key corresponds to typing a letter, sign or symbol, it may
also represent computer commands. For example,
pressing the F5 key is a command for refreshing.
The Keyboard - Standard Keyboard Layout

• A standard computer keyboard has about 80-110


keys.

• Most keyboards use the QWERTY layout, named for


the first six keys in the top row of letters.
The Keyboard - Standard Keyboard Layout

Most keyboards have keys arranged in five groups:

1. Alphanumeric keys

2. Numeric keypad

3. Function keys

4. Modifier keys

5. Cursor-movement keys
Parts of Keyboard
Alternate Key

 Also called ALT key


 Executes commands with other key(s)
Tab Key

 Moves the cursor/insertion point to a preset position.


Used to indent paragraphs or to type columns.

Tab
Arrow Keys

 Move the cursor/insertion point in the direction indicated


by the arrow on each key
Backspace Key

 Removes (erases) the character to the left of the


insertion point. Use the right little finger to operate the
key.

Backspace
Caps Lock Key
 Used for keying a string of (three or more) all capital
letters. Capitalizes all letters when used. If caps lock
mode is in use and a letter is keyed while holding down a
shift key, a lowercase letter will be keyed.
Function Keys

 Special keys located at the top of the keyboard (F1, F2,


F3, F4, etc.) that are used alone or with the CTRL, ALT,
and Shift keys to execute software commands
Control Key

 Also called CTRL


 Executes commands with other key (s)
Delete Key

 Removes (erases) the character to the right of the


cursor/insertion point

Insert Home Page


Up

Delete End Page


Down
Delete vs. Backspace

“Hello, my name is Mr. Iqbal.”

(The cursor should be on the right side of what I want to


remove using Backspace, but the cursor should be on
the left side of what I want to remove using Delete.)
History Of The Keyboard
 Sholes and Glidden tried to make the typewrite fast.
 However, one problem with the typewriters keys
(hammer bars used to strike the paper) jammed
when the operator typed at any real speed,
 Later, Christopher Latham Sholes invented what
was to become known as the Sholes keyboard:
(around 1874) for computing devices.
 Christopher was known for helping with the
typewriters and the QWERTY keyboard.
Sholes Keyboard
History Of The Keyboard

 The first keyboard was named the “QWERTY” keyboard,


this name came from the top letters in a keyboard.

 The reason they continued qwerty on the keyboard is


because people liked the arrangement on the typewriter
and they wanted it to continue the way it was.

 With that information Christopher made the QWERTY.


The Dvorak Keyboard 1936

 Dvorak turned his attention to the typewriter. He spent


time to analyze the usage model of the QWERTY
keyboard.
 The results of his investigation were that, although the
majority of users were right-handed, the existing layout
forced the weaker left hand to perform most of the work.
 Dvorak took the opposite tack to Sholes, and attempted
to find the optimal placement for the keys based on letter
frequency and human anatomy.
 i.e.; he tried to ensure that letters which are
commonly typed together would be physically close to
each other.
The Dvorak Keyboard 1936

 The (usually) stronger right hand would perform the bulk


of the work, while the left hand would have control of the
vowels and the lesser-used characters
History Of The Keyboard

 The reason why Sholes was a success was because his


most used letters were spread all over the place, making
it easier to type.
 His was the one we use today and he made his like its
made because then the letters that go together are split
up and it is good for faster, more efficient typing.
The Keyboard - How a Keyboard Works
 Functioning of a Computer Keyboard
The keys may vary depending upon the brand and the type
of operating system. Nevertheless, the shape, size and
spacing of keys are almost same for all keyboards.
The working of a computer keyboard can be compared to a
miniature computer. Inside the keyboard, there are metallic
plate, circuit board (key matrix) and processor, which are
responsible for transferring information from the keyboard to
the computer. Depending upon the working principle, there
are two main types of keys, namely, capacitive and hard-
contact. Let's discuss in brief about the functioning of
capacitive and hard contact key.
The Keyboard - How a Keyboard Works

When you press a key:

• The keyboard controller detects the keystroke.

• The controller places a scan code in the keyboard


buffer, indicating which key was pressed.

• The keyboard sends the computer an interrupt


request, telling the CPU to accept the keystroke.

• Operating system responds Controller repeats the


letter if held
Inside Keyboard
Microsoft Windows-compatible keyboards

 Microsoft has defined three new keys, which are used for
shortcuts to certain Windows features.
 These three new keys are, from left to right:
 The left Windows key
 The right Windows key
 The Application key

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A Microsoft Keyboard

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Different types of a keyboard today

 Wireless
 Corded
 Laptop
 Gaming (Xbox,Ps3, Etc)
 Thumb-Size (Phones,
PDA’s, Etc.)
 Numeric
 Virtual
 Touch screens
What Is a Mouse?

 The mouse is a pointing device. You use it to move a


graphical pointer on the screen.

 The mouse can be used to issue commands, draw, and


perform other types of input tasks.

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History Of a MOUSE

 The mouse didn’t always look the way it does. When the
creator of a mouse, Douglas Engelbart, first made the
mouse in 1964 (first prototype), it was a piece of wood
with metal wheels inside of it.

 The first known publication of the term mouse as a


pointing device is in Bill English's 1965 publication
"Computer-Aided Display Control“.
History Of Mice

 Six years after Engelbart made the mouse they gave it


the name of “Mouse” because it had the tail that came
out of it to connect to the computer.
History Of MOUSE

 In 1968 Engelbart held a presentation to show he had


made the mouse, what it was used for, and why people
should use this.
 Because of this presentation he won an award for a
great technology achievement, and he won $500,000.
 Later he was put into the hall of fame for inventors.
History Of MOUSE

 After Bill’s mouse the next kind of mouse that came out
was a mouse that moves from the laser moving to
certain new spots, sound familiar?
 After Bills Prototype mouse it then went to our kinds!
The Mouse - Mouse Techniques
Using the mouse involves five techniques:
1. Pointing; Move the mouse to move the on-screen
pointer.

2. Clicking; Press and release the left mouse button


once.

3. Double-clicking; Press and release the left mouse


button twice.

4. Dragging; Hold down the left mouse button as you


move the pointer.

5. Right-clicking; Press and release the right mouse


button.
Variant of a Mouse
 Now a days, we get varieties of mouse with different
technologies in the market.

 Although, we have switched to Touchpads in Laptops, "the


function of mouse is easy and user-friendly when compared
with touch pads for a new user", says the users.

 Mostly all the applications are operated with mouse for easy
working. In recent days, the optical mouse had overcome
the old ball mouse, because of its 'easy to use' function.
Variants of the Mouse

• Trackballs

• Track pads

• Integrated Pointed Devices


Variants of the Mouse - Trackballs
• A trackball is like a mouse turned upside-down.
• Use your thumb to move the exposed ball and
your fingers to press the buttons.

Many styles of
trackball are
available.
Disadvantage of a BALL Mouse
 With the ball-rolled Mouse, the movement of the pointer in
the computer is decided by the ball inside the mouse.
 If the ball gets damaged, or if dust gets clustered, the
operation of the mouse becomes problem. When dust
gathers, it takes some time to clear it too. With these
disadvantages, the ball mouse was slowly moved away form
the computer technology leaving the optical mouse to fill its
space.
Variants of the Mouse - Trackpads

• A trackpad is a touch-sensitive pad that provides


the same functionality as a mouse.

• To use a trackpad, you glide your finger across its


surface.

• Trackpads provide a set of buttons that function like


mouse buttons.
Variants of the Mouse-
Integrated Pointing Devices

• An integrated pointing device is a small joystick built


into the keyboard.

• To use an integrated pointing device, you move the


joystick.

• These devices provide a set of buttons that function


like mouse buttons
Other Types of Mouse

 Optical mouse
 Light shown onto mouse pad
 Reflection determines speed and direction
 Requires little maintenance

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Working of Optical Mouse
 Now, almost everyone tries to switch from ball/roller
mouse to Optical mouse. As the cost of the mouse is
also being decreasing, the replacement is quiet quicker.
To connect this optical mouse, the necessity is PS/2 or
USB plug, and windows, Macintosh or LINUX operating
system installed in the computer.

 The main components of the optical mouse are:


 Inbuilt optical sensor
 High speed camera which can take 1000 pictures at a
time
 LED
Working of Optical Mouse
 Optical mouses do have an inbuilt optical sensor.
 The optical sensor reads the movements of the optical
mouse (moved by the user) with the help of the light rays
which comes out from the bottom. ( The area in which a
light glows).
 When the user moves the optical mouse, the LED (Light
Emitting Diode) present inside the mouse emits the light
according the minute movements.
 These movements are send to the camera as light rays.
The camera captures the difference in light rays as
images. When the camera captures the images, each
and every pictures and compared to one another with
the digital technology. With the comparison, the speed of
the mouse and the direction of the movement of the
mouse are rapidly calculated. According to the
calculation, the pointer moves on the screen.
Optical Mouse

Optical mouse
Comparison between a roller/ball mouse and optical
mouse

 The optical mouse does not have any movable parts as


of the ball mouse. So, the life of the optical mouse is
long compared to the ordinary mouse.

 The optical mouse can also function good without a


mouse pad, which is impossible with ordinary mouses.
Any way, optical mouses cannot be used above
reflecting glasses or any glass materials.

 Since the ball is absent in the optical mouse, the weight


of the optical mouse is less than that of the ball mouse.

 The dust clustering problem is abolished in the optical


mouse as its parts are all static.
Benefits of Mouse

 Benefits are,
 Pointer positioning is fast
 Menu interaction is easy
 Users can draw electronically

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ERGONOMICS

The science of
designing equipment
and workspace for a
comfortable and safe
working environment.
REPETITIVE STRESS INJURIES

 Repetitive Stress Injuries can occur when someone


performs a task repeatedly causing the build-up of
irritating waste products in the muscles.

 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome


 Carpal tunnel is a passage in the wrist
 Holds nerves and tendons
 Prolonged keyboarding swells tendons
 Many professions suffer from RSI
CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME
WHAT IS CTS?
It is the entrapment of the median nerve in the carpal
tunnel. CTS occurs due to the swelling of the
median nerve or the tendons of the wrist.
WHAT CAUSES CTS?
It occurs from using the computer for hours without
proper body posture and improper techniques.
WHAT ARE THE SYMTOMS OF CTS?
Pain-Tingling-numbness in the thumb, index, and
middle fingers—weakness and swelling of the wrist
and hand.
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

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DeQuervain’s Disease

 DeQuervain’s Disease is an overuse injury of the thumb


extensor tendons. It often occurs from repetitive tapping
of the space bar.
How Keyboard Cause Injuries?

 The continuous use of any keyboard may cause serious


injuries.
 It can cause strain to hands, wrists, arms, neck or back.
 The risks of injuries can be reduced by taking frequent
short breaks to get up and walk around a couple of times
every hour.
 The chair height and keyboard tray should be adjusted so
that the wrists are straight, and the wrists should not be
rested on sharp table edges.

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Keyboard Strain

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ERGONOMIC TIPS

 Top 1/8 of monitor should be at eye


level
 Elbows & knees should be
positioned at 90-110 degrees
 Sit up straight, but relaxed
 Sit at least 24 inches away from the
monitor
 Wrists should be in a neutral
position while typing or using the
mouse
 Take “frequent” breaks
 Avoid glare on the computer screen
Ergonomics and Input Devices

 Office hardware suggestions


 Office chairs should have
 Adjustable armrests and height

 Armrests

 Lower back support

 Desks should have


 Have a keyboard tray

 Keep hands at keyboard height

 Place the monitor at eye level

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Correct
Position of
using a computer
system

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Practical
Windows Keys Combinations

 F1: Help
 CTRL+ESC: Open Start menu
 ALT+TAB: Switch between open programs
 ALT+F4: Quit program
 SHIFT+DELETE: Delete item permanently
 Windows Logo+L: Lock the computer (without using
CTRL+ALT+DELETE)
Windows program key combinations

 CTRL+C: Copy
 CTRL+X: Cut
 CTRL+V: Paste
 CTRL+Z: Undo
 CTRL+B: Bold
 CTRL+U: Underline
 CTRL+I: Italic
General keyboard-only commands

 F1: Starts Windows Help


 F10: Activates menu bar options
 SHIFT+F10 Opens a shortcut menu for the selected item
(this is the same as right-clicking an object
 CTRL+ESC: Opens the Start menu (use the ARROW
keys to select an item)
 CTRL+ESC or ESC: Selects the Start button (press TAB
to select the taskbar, or press SHIFT+F10 for a context
menu)
General keyboard-only commands

 CTRL+SHIFT+ESC: Opens Windows Task Manager


 ALT+DOWN ARROW: Opens a drop-down list box
 ALT+TAB: Switch to another running program (hold
down the ALT key and then press the TAB key to view
the task-switching window)
 SHIFT: Press and hold down the SHIFT key while you
insert a CD-ROM to bypass the automatic-run feature
 ALT+SPACE: Displays the main window's System
menu (from the System menu, you can restore, move,
resize, minimize, maximize, or close the window)
General keyboard-only commands

 ALT+- (ALT+hyphen): Displays the Multiple Document


Interface (MDI) child window's System menu (from the
MDI child window's System menu, you can restore,
move, resize, minimize, maximize, or close the child
window)
 CTRL+TAB: Switch to the next child window of a
Multiple Document Interface (MDI) program
 ALT+underlined letter in menu: Opens the menu
General keyboard-only commands

 ALT+F4: Closes the current window


 CTRL+F4: Closes the current Multiple Document
Interface (MDI) window
 ALT+F6: Switch between multiple windows in the same
program (for example, when the Notepad Find dialog
box is displayed, ALT+F6 switches between the Find
dialog box and the main Notepad window)
General folder/shortcut control

 F4: Selects the Go To A Different Folder box and


moves down the entries in the box (if the toolbar is active
in Windows Explorer)
 F5: Refreshes the current window.
 F6: Moves among panes in Windows Explorer
 CTRL+Z: Undo the last command
 CTRL+A: Select all the items in the current window
 BACKSPACE: Switch to the parent folder
 SHIFT+click+Close button: For folders, close the
current folder plus all parent folders
NOTEPAD – Create New Notepad
Save/Save As/ Open/Print Notepad
Change Font /Type
Summary

 In Today’s Lecture, we have learnt


 Keyboard, history and different styles of modern
keyboard
 Mouse, Different types of mouse
 Ergonomics
 Windows Keyboard commands
 Notepad practical
THE END