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Skeletal System

Bone Structure

Bones are classified acc


ording to their shapes in
cluding long, short, flat,
irregular and sesamoid (r
ound)
Bone Structure
• Epiphyses at each end and covered with articular cart
ilage and articulate with other bones.
• The shaft of a bone is called the diaphysis.
• Except for the articular cartilage, a bone is covered by
a peristoneum.
• Compact bone has a continuous extracellular matrix
with no gaps.
• Spongy bone has irregular interconnecting spaces be
tween bony plates that reduce the weight of bone.
• Both compact and spongy bone are strong and resist
bending
• The diaphysis contains a medullary cavity filled with
marrow
Bone development and Growth
1) Intramembranous bones

• Intramembranous bones d
evelop from layers of unsp
-ecialized connective
tissues.
• Osteoblast within the mem
branous layers form bone
tissue
• Mature bone cells are
called osteocytes.
Bone development and Growth
2) Endochondral Bone
Endochondral bones develop as hyaline
cartilage that is later replaced by bone
tissue.
The primary ossification center appears
in the diaphysis whereas secondary ossi
fication centers appear in the epiphyses
An epiphyseal plates are responsible for
lengthening
Long bones continue until the epiphyse
al plates are ossified.
Growth in thickness is due to ossificatio
n beneath the peristoneum.
Bone development and Growth
Bone development and Growth
3) Homeostasis of bone tissue

Osteoclast breaks down matrix and osteoblasts deposit


bone matrix to continually remodel bone.
The total mass of bone remains nearly constant.
Bone development and Growth

4)Factors

Factors affecting bone development, growth and re


pair include nutrition, hormonal secretions and phys
ical exercise.
Bone Function
1) Support and protection

Bones shape and form body structures.


Bones support and protect softer underlying tissues

2) Movement

Bones and muscles function together as levers


A lever consist of a bar, a pivot (fulcrum), a resistance and a for
ce that supplies energy.
Bone Function

3) Blood cell formation

At different ages, hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sac, liver, spleen a


nd the red bone marrow.
Red bone marrow houses developing RBC, WBC and blood platelets.
Yellow marrow stores fat.

4) Storage of inorganic salts

Bones stores Ca in the extracellular matrix of bone tissue, which contai


ns large quantities of Ca phosphate.
When blood Ca is low, osteoclast break down bones, releasing Ca salts.
When blood Ca is high, osteoblasts form bone tissue and stores Ca
salts.
Bones stores small amount of Mg, Na, K and Carbonate Ions.
Skeletal Organization
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Cranium

Axial Skeleton Skull

Axial Skeleton
Face
Hyoid

• Skull Clavicle
Scapula

• Vertebral Comlumn
• Skull
Sternum
Humerus
Ribs
• Thoracic Cage Vertebral Vertebral

• Vertebral
column column
Hip
Carpals bone Sacrum
Radius
Ulna Coccyx

Appendicular Skeleton
• Upper limbs Metacarpals
Column Femur Phalanges

• Lower limbs
• Shoulder girdle
• Thoracic Patella
Tibia

Cage
Fibula

• Pelvic girdle
Tarsals
Metatarsals

(a)
Phalanges
(b)
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The Skull consist of 22 bones; 8 Cranial Bones and 14 facial
bones
1) Cranium
• It enclose and protects the brain
• Some cranial bones contain air- filled paranasal sinuses.
• Cranial bones include the frontal bone, parietal bones, occipital
bone, temporal bones, sphenoid bone and ethmoid bone.
.
2) Facial Skeleton

Facial Bones form the basic


shape of the face and provide
attachments for muscles
Facial bones:
-palatine bones
-zygomatic bones
-lambdoid bones
-occipital bones.
3) Infantile Skull

Fontanels connect incompletely developed bones


The proportions of the infantile skull are different from
those of an adult skull
Vertebral Column

The vertebral column extends from the skull to t


he pelvis and protects the spinal cord. It is composed of v
ertebrae separated by intervertebral disc.

A typical Vertebra

-Cervical Vertebrae

-Thoracic Vertebrae

-Lumbar Vertebrae

-Sacrum

-Coccyx

.
Thoracic Cage

Ribs

• 12 pairs of ribs attach to the


12 thoracic vertebrae
• Costal Cartilages of the true
ribs join the sternum directly
• Those of the false ribs join it
indirectly or not at all
• True ribs (costal cartlage, stern
al angle)
• False ribs (floating ribs)
• Sternum ( manubrium, body,
xiphoid process)
Pectoral Girdle

The pectoral girdle composed of t


wo clavicles and two scapulae. It forms an
incomplete ring that supports the upper
limbs and provides attachments for
muscles.

Clavicles
Clavicles are rodlike bones located betwee
n the manubrium and the scapulae
They hold the shoulders in place and provi
de attachments for muscles

Scapulae
Broad, triangular bones
They articulate with the humerus of each li
mbs and provide attachments for muscles.
Bones of the upper limb provide the frameworks and attachment
s of muscles and function in levers that move the limb and its pa
rts.
Humerus

the humerus extends from the scapula to the elbow


Upper Limb it articulates with the radius and ulna at the elbow

-Radius
-Ulna

-Hand
The pelvic girdle consists of 2 hip bones
that articulate with each other anteriorly and with
the sacrum posteriorly.

-ilium
-Ischium
-pubis
Lower Limb
Femur Bones of the lower limb provide frameworks for the thigh
Femur Patella , leg and foot.

Fibula Femur
Tibia
Tibia
(c)Lateral view
Patella

Fibula
Fibula Femur
Tibia Foot
Lateral
Medial
condyle
condyle Fibula

Tibia
Tarsals (d)Posterior view
tatarsals

Phalanges
)
Foot

The foot is made up of the instep, an


d the toes. The ankle or tarsus is com
posed of seven tarsal bones. The inst
rep or metatarsus consist
5metatarsals and 14 phalanges com
pose the toes.
-Calcaneus
-tarsals
-phalanges
-talus
Joints

Articulations of bones
Functions of joints
 Hold bones together
 Allow for mobility
Ways joints are classified
 Functionally
 Structurally
Joints
Fibrous joints
Generally immovable
Cartilaginous joints
Immovable or slightly
moveable
Synovial joints
Freely moveable
:
Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape
Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape
Wrist and Hands

Carpal Bones (16 total bones)


• Scaphoid
• Lunate Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for
reproduction or display.
Radius
• Triquetral Scaphoid Ulna
Lunate
Scaphoid
• Pisiform Capitate
Trapezoid
Hamate
Triquetrum
Capitate
Trapezoid
• Hamate Trapezium
Pisiform
Trapezium

• Capitate Carpals
• Trapezoid (carpus)
1 1
Metacarpals 5 5 2
Trapezium 2 3 4 4 3
(metacarpus)

Proximal
Metacarpal Bones (10) phalanx
Middle
Phalanges
Phalangeal Bones (28) phalanx
Distal
• Proximal phalanx phalanx

• Middle phalanx
• Distal phalanx (a) (b)

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