Sei sulla pagina 1di 16

ALTITUDE

DECOMPRESSION
SICKNESS
Qara Syifa Fachrani
1610211039
DEFINITION
• Decompression sickness (DCS) describes a condition characterized by a variety of
symptoms resulting from exposure to low barometric pressures that cause inert gases
(mainly nitrogen), normally dissolved in body fluids and tissues, to come out of physical
solution and form bubbles. DCS can occur during exposure to altitude (altitude DCS) or
during ascent from depth (mining or diving).
ETIOLOGY
• When the body is exposed to decreased barometric pressures (as in flying an
unpressurized aircraft to altitude, or during a rapid decompression), the nitrogen
dissolved in the body comes out of solution. If the nitrogen is forced to leave the
solution too rapidly, bubbles form in different areas of the body, causing a variety of
signs and symptoms.
EPIDEMIOLOGY
• “The bends’’ (joint pain) account for about 60 to 70% of all altitude DCS cases, with the
shoulder being the most common site.
• Neurologic manifestations are present in about 10 to 15% of all DCS cases, with
headache and visual disturbances being the most common symptoms.
• “The chokes” are very infrequent and occur in less than 2% of all DCS cases.
• Skin manifestations are present in about 10 to 15% of all DCS cases.
PREDISPOSITION FACTORS
• Altitude (18,000 ft dan 25,000 ft) • Ambient temperature (Very cold
ambient temperatures)
• Repetitive exposures (above 18,000 ft
within a short period of time) • Body type (High body fat content is at
greater risk of altitude DCS)
• Rate of ascent (The faster the rate of
ascent to altitude, the greater the risk) • Exercise (Person is physically active
while flying, there is greater risk)
• Time at altitude (The longer the
duration of the exposure, the greater • Alcohol consumption (The after-effects
the risk) of alcohol consumption, such as
dehydration)
• Age (Higher risk of DCS with increasing
age) • Scuba diving before flying (The deeper
• Previous injury (Recent joint or limb the SCUBA dive, the greater the rate of
injuries) body nitrogen saturation)
SIGNS &
SYMPTOMS
MEDICAL TREATMENT
• Put on your oxygen mask immediately and switch the regulator to 100% oxygen.
• Begin an emergency descent and land as soon as possible. Even if the symptoms
disappear during 4 descent, you should still land and seek medical evaluation while
continuing to breathe oxygen.
• If one of your symptoms is joint pain, keep the affected area still; do not try to work pain
out by moving the joint around.
• Upon landing seek medical assistance from an FAA medical officer, aviation medical
examiner (AME) military flight surgeon, or a hyperbaric medicine specialist.
• Definitive medical treatment may involve the use of a hyperbaric chamber operated
by specially trained personnel.
PROGNOSIS
• Delayed signs and symptoms of altitude DCS can occur after return to ground level
whether or not they were present during flight.
• The higher the altitude the greater the risk of altitude DCS but there is no specific,
maximum, safe altitude below which it never occurs. There are very few symptoms at
or below 5,500 m (18,000 ft) unless patients had predisposing medical conditions or had
dived recently.
TRAPPED GAS
Qara Syifa Fachrani
1610211039
DEFINITION
• From Boyle’s Law it is apparent that if reduce the pressure, as in ascending to altitude,
gases increase in volume and vice versa on descent.
• The human body has several cavities that contain varying amounts of gas. Most of
these cavities have an opening that will allow the gas to enter and escape. If the
opening is reduced in size or closed, then the gas is trapped. Once trapped, it is still
subject to gas expansion and compression in accordance with Boyle’s Law.
• The result of having changes in gas volume within these cavities without equalization
will usually be pain.
ETIOLOGY

As pressure decreases (as it does with increasing altitude), volume increases at a similar rate.
When closed containers undergo these pressure changes in flight, increasing pressure of gases
inside the container can occasionally increase to that critical value causing a cap or unsecured
top to pop.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS
• Trapped gas symptoms usually come on suddenly. The pain can be sharp and
stabbing. It can also be a general feeling of acute discomfort.
• Stomach may be bloated and may have stomach cramps.
• Pain from gas that collects on the left side of colon can radiate up to chest. May think
this is a heart attack.
• Gas that collects on the right side of the colon can feel like it might be appendicitis or
gallstones.
• Ear block, sinus block, tooth squeeze may occur.
MEDICAL TREATMENT
Pencegahan : Farmakologi :
• Stay hydrated. • Enzyme preparations :
• Avoid carbonated beverages. • Lactaid
• Digest Dairy Plus
• Drink liquids at room temperature, not too hot or • Dairy Relief
too cold.
• Adsorbents :
• Avoid foods known to cause excess gas.
• Gas-X
• Avoid artificial sweeteners. • Alka-Seltzer Anti-Gas
• Eat slowly and chew your food well. • Mylanta Gas

• Don’t chew gum.


• Don’t smoke or chew tobacco.
• If you wear dentures, have your dentist check on
whether they let in too much air when you eat.
• Increase your physical activity.