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Assessment
of Learning

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Essential Question (overarching)
 What does assessment look like in a
performance-based classroom?

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Stephen Covey Quote
 “To begin with the end in mind means to
start with a clear understanding of your
destination. It means to know where
you’re going so that you better
understand where you are now and so
that the steps you take are always in the
right direction.”

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What is assessment?
 Do students know? Are they able to complete
processes and demonstrate skills? Do they
understand?
 How well do students know? How well are they
able to complete processes and demonstrate
skills? How well do they understand?
 What do students not know? What are they not
yet able to do? What don’t they understand?

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Classroom Assessment Strategies
Selected Constructed Performance Informal
Response Response Assessment Assessment

•Multiple •Fill-in-the- •Presentation •Oral


Choice blank (words, •Movement questioning
•True-False phrases) •Science lab •Observation
•Matching •Essay •Athletic skill •Interview
•Short answer •Dramatization •Conference
(sentences, •Enactment •Process
paragraphs) •Project description
•Diagram •Debate •Checklist
•Web •Model •Rating scale
•Concept Map •Exhibition •Journal
•Flowchart •Recital sharing
•Graph •Thinking aloud
•Table a process
•Matrix •Student self-
•Illustration assessment
•Peer review
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Small group discussion: What has
to happen in terms of assessment?
“…if assessment is not working effectively in our classrooms every day,
then assessment at all other levels (district, state, national, or
international) represents a complete waste of time and money.”
Stiggins, 1999
 If you know what a student must understand,
how do you check to see if that student
understands?
 What evidence will you use to evaluate the level
of understanding?
 What will you do in your classroom based on the
evidence you collect?
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Critical Assessment Filters
 What type of evidence is required to assess the
standard? (e.g., recall of knowledge, understanding of
content, ability to demonstrate process, thinking,
reasoning, or communication skills)
 What assessment method will provide the type of
evidence needed?
 Will the task (assessment method) provide enough
evidence to determine whether students have met the
standard?
 Is the task developmentally appropriate?
 Will the assessment provide students with various
options for showing what they know?

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Performance Tasks & Assessments . . .
. . . often occur over time

. . . result in a tangible product or observable performance

. . . encourage self-evaluation and revision

. . . require judgment to score

. . . reveal degrees of proficiency based on criteria established and

made public prior to the performance

. . . sometimes involve students working with others

-Marzano, Pickering, & McTighe


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What is a Performance Task?
A performance task is a complex scenario
that provides students an opportunity
to demonstrate what they know and are
able to do concerning a given concept.

A teacher is asking students to show that


they can use the knowledge and skills
they learned in an authentic real life
situation.

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The components of performance
task are outlined in the acronym
GRASPS:
G Real-world GOAL
R Real-world ROLE
A Real-world Audience
S Real-world Situation
P Real-world Products or Performances
S Standards/Criteria to judge product or
performance
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GRASPS
 GOAL:
Provide a statement of the task.
Establish the goal, problem, challenge, or obstacle in the task.
 ROLE:
Define the role of the students in the task.
State the job of the students for the task.
 AUDIENCE:
Identify the target audience within the context of the scenario.
Example audiences might include a client or committee.
 SITUATION:
Set the context of the scenario.
Explain the situation.
 PRODUCT:
Clarify what the students will create and why they will create it.
 STANDARDS and CRITERIA [INDICATORS]:
Provide students with a clear picture of success.
Identify specific standards for success.
Issue rubrics to the students or develop them with the students.

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GRASPS Ideas
G Design, teach, explain, inform, create, persuade, defend, critique,
improve

R Advertiser, illustrator, coach, candidate, chef, engineer, eyewitness,


newscaster, editor, news show host, politician

A Board members, neighbors, pen pals, travel agent, jury, celebrity,


historical figure, community, school board, government

S The context of the situation – Create a real life scenario.

P Advertisement, game, script, debate, rap, banner, cartoon, scrapbook,


proposal, brochure, slide show, puppet show

S What success looks like: Scoring guide, rubric & examples

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Sample second grade math task
CREATE AN EXCEL SPREADSHEET SURVEY

GOAL: Your task is to create an excel spreadsheet survey by surveying the


class as to which was their favorite lunch food.

ROLE: You are a survey taker and you need to obtain your data by surveying
your classmates on your specific food type.

AUDIENCE: You are letting your classmates and the school cafeteria manager
know which food turned out to be the class favorite.

SITUATION: The challenge involves gathering data and then displaying that
data in an excel spreadsheet.

PRODUCT AND PERFORMANCE: You will create an excel spreadsheet using


the data you obtained and share it in a letter to the cafeteria manager.

STANDARDS FOR SUCCESS: Your product must meet the following


standards: Letter is written correctly and contains correct data displayed in
cells and also displayed into a chart.
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Letter

Sample Product
Dear Mrs. Critten,
I took a survey of my second
grade class to see which fruits
students like best for lunch.
Class Favorite Fruit Survey
Favorite Fruits
For Lunch 12

Peaches 10
10
Pears 8
Pineapples 5
8

Apple 2
Number of Students

Peaches
Pears
Banana 1 6 Pineapples
Apple
Banana

0
Peaches Pears Pineapples Apple Banana
Nam e of Fruit

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What does this cartoon illustrate about perspectives of assessment?

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A Performance Assessment Task
includes:
 Instructions for the students
 Dimensions of the task (knowledge,
understanding, skills being assessed)
 Scoring systems:
 Rubric—used to judge levels of performance
 Checklist—used to judge whether or not the
skill or behavior has been demonstrated

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According to Grant Wiggins…
 “What is to be assessed must be clear
and explicit to all students:

 NO MORE SURPRISES!

 ….rubrics must accompany all major


assignments and assessments.”

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A rubric is a set of rules that …

 Shows levels of quality


 Communicates standards
 Tells students expectations for
assessment task
 Is NOT a checklist (yes or no answers)
 Includes dimensions (criteria), indicators
and a rating scale.

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Advantages of Using a Rubric:
 Lowers students’ anxiety about what is
expected of them
 Provides specific feedback about the quality of
their work
 Provides a way to communicate expectations
and progress
 Ensures all student work is judged by the same
standard
 Leads students toward quality work.

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Pay attention
that you are
scoring the
evidence of
what you want
the student to
know and be
able to do.
How good is
good enough?
Don’t get
confused by
criteria that
sounds good
but doesn’t
match the goal.

Far Side Gallery by Gary Larsen


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Parts of a Rubric:
 Dimensions, sometimes referred to as criteria,
encompass the knowledge, skills, and
understanding to be assessed.

 Indicators specify the evidence used to judge


the degree to which the dimension is mastered.

 Rating Scales discriminate among the various


levels of performance.

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Basic Rubric Template:
Scale

Criteria

Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator

Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator

Indicator Indicator Indicator Indicator

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Template for Holistic Rubrics:
Score Description

5 Demonstrates complete understanding of the problem. All


requirements of task are included in response.
4 Demonstrates considerable understanding of the problem. All
requirements of task are included.
3 Demonstrates partial understanding of the problem. Most
requirements of task are included.
2 Demonstrates little understanding of the problem. Many
requirements of task are missing.
1 Demonstrates no understanding of the problem

0 No response/task not attempted

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Ugly Rubrics:
 Too wordy so that no one can understand
the dimensions or indicators, let alone
use them for a fair grade
 Checklists – Have it, don’t have it
 Judge each work against other items of
work
 Judge the wrong thing so student can
just jump through hoops to get a good
grade.
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Good Rubrics:
 Are tools
 Show level of quality of a performance or
task
 Communicate standards clearly and
specifically
 Are given to students to set expectations
 Show what to avoid and addresses
misconceptions
 Are consistent and reliable
 Use content that matches standards and
instructional emphasis
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WORKSHOP

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GRASP/Rubric Making
1. Pick a partner.
2. Each pair will be given a specific
performance standard.
3. Make a GRASP Model from the given
standard.
4. Create an analytic rubric for the GRASP.
5. Present your work for critiquing.

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