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EXTERNAL ANATOMY

OF A FROG
What is a frog?
A frog is any member of a
diverse and largely carnivorous group
of short-bodied, tailless amphibians
composing the order Anura.

They are amphibians that are known for their jumping


abilities, croaking sounds, bulging eyes and slimy skin. They
live all over the world and are among the most diverse
animals in the world, with more than 6,000 species.
FROGS VS TOADS

Lays eggs Slim body Stout body Lays eggs


in clusters type type in chains

Prefers to Prefers to walk


jump or short hop
Very long legs Short legs
Lives in the water Lives on land
How to tell if a Frog is Poisonous
Poisonous frogs are not venomous -- you do not have to
be bitten to be afflicted by their poison. Rather, the frogs’
skin secretes a poison that can cause various reactions
when touched. The most poisonous of frogs, such as the
Phylobates terribilis, has enough poison on its skin to kill
10 to 12 people.
How to tell if a Frog is Poisonous
The most defining feature of a
poisonous frog is its color (e.g. Dart
Frog). A bright, colorful frog may or
may not be poisonous. An
interesting fact about poison-dart
frogs is, they only produce poison
by eating alkaloid-container insects.
How to determine if a frog is a
MALE or FEMALE

The sex of a frog may be determined externally by


examining the Thumb pads on the front feet.
Important Terminologies
POSTERIOR - tail DORSAL - the back or
end of an animal upper surface of an animal

VENTRAL - the stomach or ANTERIOR - head


lower surface of an animal end of an animal
External Anatomy of a Frog’s Head
External Nares

Nictitating
Membrane

Maxilla
Mandible Tympanic
Membrane
Its two eyes are located on
the top of its head. Although this
might seem strange to us, frogs
live a submerged life. Having
eyes on top, rather than in the
front of their head allows them to
see while they swim and stay
mostly submerged in water.
Brown Spot
A mark left behind after
skull is fully developed. The brow
spot does not have a function. it
simply marks the spot where,
before the skull had developed
and closed, part of the brain
reached the surface.

Digits
A collection of small bones make
up a frog's digits, or its fingers
and toes. Most of the time, a frog
has five toes on its back legs and
four toes on its front legs.
Forelimb
Used to raise or support the body
when the frog is at rest. Three
divisions: brachium (upper arm),
antebrachium (forearm), manus
(hand).

Hind Limb
Hindlimbs – well adapted for
jumping and swimming. Three
division: thigh (upper leg),
shank/crus (lower leg), pes (long
foot).
Dorsolateral dermal plica
Two lines running parallel to one
another along the frog's back.

Trunk
Central part of a frog, to which
the head and limbs are attached.
Cloaca
The opening between the two
posterior/hind legs that allows
reproductive cells to be excreted into the
water.

Webbing between digits


Skin attached between the digits of the
hind legs that allows the frogs feet to
have greater surface area and swim
faster (like flipper when snorkeling).

Chromatophore
Darkened spots all over the frog’s dorsal
side.