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Group 2

MAE ANN PASCUA AR ELEC II


ROBERTO S. MACDANGDANG JR. AR. ERWIN JENN AGUILAR RAMOS, UAP.RMP
(BS IN ARCHITECTURE – V) (INSTRUCTOR)
INCREMENTAL
PLANNING
INCREMENTAL PLANNING is a pragmatic piecemeal approach to
developing solutions to problems as they arise rather than planning for
them in a comprehensive, overarching way as rational planning does. It is
a means of satisficing, or settling, on a planning approach for a giving
problem following Herbert Simon’s “principle of bounded rationality.”

The premise behind Simon’s principle is that humans have a


limited capacity for solving and understanding problems in comparison to
the vast and expansive list of current and future obstacles that are trying
to be resolved.

Incrementalism was first developed in the 1950’s.


CHARLES EDWARD
LINDBLOM
• Developed the notion of Incrementalism that
closely follows the principle of satisficing.

• Through an incremental approach,


decisions can be made swiftly to address
current needs and problems.

• According to Lindblom, incremental


planning is more reflective of real-world
decision making and is better suited to
the unpredictable nature of planning.
ORIGIN OF INCREMENTALISM

“The Science of Muddling Through” (1959), was an


essay Lindblom wrote to help policymakers understand
why they needed to consider a different approach when
making policy changes.
FEATURES OF
INCREMENTALISM
“SIMPLICITY” “FLEXIBILITY”
This type of budgeting is This type of budgeting is
very simple to very flexible.
understand.

“AVOID CONFLICT”
“GRADUAL CHANGE”
With this method of
With this type of
budgeting, it is easier to
budgeting, you will
keep everyone on the
have a very stable
same page and avoid
budget from one
conflicts between
period to the next.
departments.
STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS
OF INCREMENTALISM
1. Incrementalism is a planning
methodology normally found where a large
strategic plan is either unnecessary or has
failed to develop and for that reason it is
often just called “muddling through”.

2. Incrementalism is the antithesis of


intrusive central planning, which can create rigid
work systems unable to deal with the actual
problems faced at the grassroots level.
“Restrict their attention to
relatively few values and
relatively few alternative
policies”
PLANNERS NEED TO:

“Theorize planning behaviors


under the name of “successive
limited comparison” or “science
of muddling through.”
ADVOCACY PLANNING
PAUL
DAVIDOFF
• In 1964, Davidoff became a founding member the
Advocacy planning organization "Planners for
Equal Opportunity."

• An American planner, planning educator, and


planning theoretician who conceptualized
"advocacy planning" with his wife, Linda Stone
Davidoff.
STRENGTHS:
• Giving voice to less represented groups
• Mainstreaming” of advocacy concerns
Ex: Requirements to examine environmental, social, and other
impacts for large projects
• Encourages more open planning processes

LIMITATIONS:
• No way to reconcile plural plans
• Sometimes seen as patronizing
• No change in distribution of power
• Highly influenced by political climate
HISTORY OF ADVOCACY PLANNING CONCEPT

• political parties (in power or in opposition)


• special interest groups like groups against the caste system, groups against
racial discrimination, pro or anti civil rights groups, chambers of commerce,
labour organizations, NGOs aiming at protecting the environment.
• Ad-hoc associations protesting against existing policies e.g. there is a group
of architects who are against the construction of the over ground construction
of the Delhi Metro on the grounds of aesthetics.
FUNCTIONS OF A PLANNER IN ADVOCACY PLANNING
• he undertakes educational work.
• he informs his clients about their rights under the
various planning laws, the way a city government
functions and the particular programmed which
might affect them.
• he informs the public agencies and other groups
about the conditions, outlooks and problems of
the group he represents.
• the planner points out the nature of biases
underlying the information used in other plans.
“ Planners would take the role as advocates
in a courtroom who represent two opposing
cases..” -Davidoff
Over time, advocacy planning has led to:

Community
Equity planning based planning

Social, mutual
and trans active
learning
Support of planning for
secure public spaces
1. Ensuring that all segments of the population affected by a planning
process are taken into account even-handedly;

2. Mediating between the everyday world of ordinary citizens and the


perspective of experts
DAVIDOFF’S ARGUMENTS AND
ALTERNATIVE
DECISION MAKING PROCESS
1. Unitary Plan
vs
Plural Plan
Unitary plan is a practice that has discourages
full participation by citizens in plan making in the past. It
showed that only one agency of a city or department in a
community should prepare a comprehensive plan.
2. PLANNER AS ADVOCATES
After stating that the correct
process for planning is pluralism,
Davidoff argues that the correct role
of the planner is one of an advocate
and it should against traditional
planning. Social values and justice
must be integrated into planning.
3. THE PUBLIC PLANNING
AGENCY
VS.
DEMOCRATIC
The local planning process typically
PLANNING
includes one or more citizen organizations PROCESS
concerned with the nature of planning in the
community. The program which encourages
citizen participation has enforced the tradition
and brought it topmost large communities.
It is the Davidoff's third element that he argues
should be changed is the focus on only physical space of a
community. The city planning profession concern with the
physical environment has warped its ability to see physical
structures and land as servants to those who use them.

4. INCLUSIVE DEFINITION OF THE


SCOPE OF PLANNING
5. Planning Education

In order to widening the scope of planning, the


planners should have knowledge of the structure and
forces affecting urban development. Planners also should
be knowledgeable in a wide spectrum of issues especially
on social, economic, systematic, and physical levels.
End of the slides!
Thank you!
QUIZ
1) is a pragmatic piecemeal approach to developing
solutions to problems
2) developed the notion of Incrementalism
3) essay Lindblom in 1959
4-7) features of Incrementalism
8-9) two methods that discussed in the video
10) became a founding member of the Advocacy
planning organization
11-14) Davidoff's arguments and alternative
decision making process
15) Complete name of our instructor in AR Elec II