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By: Vira Nurmila

Wahyu Miranda
The modern internet
Flexible learning can be translated into different
levels in implementation. (Chen, D. 2003).

E-learning is a system or concept of education that

uses information in the teaching and learning
process, Learning arranged with the aim of using a
computer or computer system that can support the
learning process. (Michael, 2013: 27)
Networked learning is a process of
developing and maintaining
connections with people and
information, and communicating in
such a way so as to support one
another's learning.
(Dirckinck-Holmfeld, L., Jones, C.,
and Lindström, B. (2009).
• Students encounter technical difficulties
• Some students do not update their software to include
• Wi-Fi access not evenly distributed to accommodate
use anytime, and anywhere
• Some learning resources do not afford the interactivity
expected online.

• Offer multi-device courses and personal attention

Debra Ferdinand-James (2015)

Information formats
Kubiliunas & Bareisa (2009)
In order to make one aspect of
the instruction flexible, usually
other aspects have to be made
more structured.

Johnstone & Poulin (2002) also

argue that the best solution
may not always be the
»Trouble creating handouts using
pictures and diagrams, and the
formatting goes haywire.

• A short term solution may be to provide the
students with hard copies of the handouts. A longer
term solution might be to better understand
publishing software and formats. You might need to
upgrade your skills and use a more advanced
Image editing programmer
Teacher and learner workloads
Flexible learning is learner-centred, encouraging greater
independence and autonomy on the part of the learner. Its
ethos is to enable and empower learners and give them greater
control of their learning and become more self-directed(George
& Luke, 1995)

Characteristics of flexible learning include: students’

collaboration with peers and or practitioners in the field,
provision of ample resources, the learning experience being
context sensitive, and greater emphasis on generic skills (e.g.
thinking, meta-cognitive, problem-solving), and the shift of the
teacher’s role from a source of knowledge to a facilitator
throughout the students’ journey in learning (Bridgland &
Blanchard, 2001).

United States copyright law provides important exceptions to

the rights of copyright holders that are specifically aimed at
nonprofit educational institutions and libraries:

•Teachers and students have certain rights to publicly display

and perform copyrighted works in the classroom.
•Libraries and archives have special exemptions for the
reproduction of copyrighted works in some circumstances .
•The “Fair use” allows limited copying of copyrighted works
without the permission of the owner for certain purposes,
including teaching and research