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HIGH VOLTAGE ENGINEERING

Tofael Ahmed
Assistant Professor, EEE, CUET.
Syllabus
Generation
• High voltage DC: Rectifier circuits, cascaded
rectifiers, Van-de-Graff generators,
electrostatic generators.
• High voltage AC: cascaded transformers, tesla
coils.
• Impulse generators: Impulse wave shapes,
mathematical analysis and design
consideration of impulse generator, triggering
and synchronizing of impulse generators.
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET)
Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh.
Syllabus
Measurement
Measurement and Testing of high voltages, radio
influence (RI) and corona, power loss calculation, break
down of solid-liquid and gaseous dieletrics, Insulation
testing: Standard specification, transmission line design
based on direct strokes, insulation co-ordination,
lightning phenomenon, lightning arrestors, surge
diverter, protector tubes, high voltage AC/DC
transmission, merits and demerits of AC/DC
transmission, bridge arrangement, mathematical
analysis of the bridge circuits, reactive power, artificial
commutation, harmonics.
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET)
Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh.
Books
Books
Books
This lineman is safely
Books supported by
polypropylene chains
for placement on live
400kV conductor.

This one is written by a lawyer


who invented a noble technique
of dropping a human being on a
live high tension line.
Books

Another good book


What is high voltage

• A mobile phone is operated from a 5V battery.


It may be destroyed if anyone attempts to
operate it from a 12V car battery.
Therefore 12V is quite a high voltage for a
mobile phone.

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering


Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET)
Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh.
What is high voltage
•230kV
Step down
High voltage is specially
transformer is 230kV referred 230kV
Step electrical
to up
transformer is
power system.
used to reduce
used to rise the
the voltage to Long transmission line used to
voltage to 132kV
33kV carry the power to Dhaka
or 230kV
33kV
Step down
At Kaptai we
transformer is
used to reduce 11kV
generate at 11kV
or 21kV
the voltage to
11kV
11kV
Another Step down transformer
is used to reduce the voltage 400V 230V
Domestic users get electricity at
further to 400V suitable for end 230Volt.
user.
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET)
Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh.
What is high voltage

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering


Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET)
Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh.
What is high voltage

• Below 11kV : Low voltage


• 11kV – 100kV : HV (high Voltage)
• 100kV – 400kV : VHV (Very high voltage)
• 400kV and above : EHV ( Extra high voltage)
• UHV : Ultra high voltage

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering


Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET)
Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh.
Consumer
ac power frequency :
110 V, 220 V- single phase
440 V, 3.3 kV ,6.6 kV, 11 kV-three
phase (3.3 & 6.6 kV are being phased out)
Besides these levels ,the Railway Traction at 25
kV , single phase is one of the biggest
consumer of power spread at any particular
stretch to 40 km of track length
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET)
Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh.
Generation : Three phase synchronous
generators
440 V, 3.3 kV, 6.6 kV (small
generators) , 11 kV (110 & 220 MW)
21.5 kV ( 500 MW), 33 kV (1000
MW)
[limitation due to machine
insulation requirement]

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering


Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET)
Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh.
Distribution :
Three phase
440 V, 3.3 kV, 6.6 kV, 11 kV, 33 kV, 66 kV
With the increase in power consumption
density, the power distribution voltage levels are
at rise because the power handling
capacity is proportional to the square of the
voltage level.
(In Germany 440 V , 3.0 kV 6.0 kV, 10 kV,
30 kV, 60 kV)
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology (CUET)
Chittagong-4349, Bangladesh.
Loss
NewinLoss in
Why high voltage transmission
transmission
line = Iline2R,

Basically it is requiredRfor transmission


is the
(2I) 2R=4I2R lines to be
resistance
of the line.
able to transmit more power over the same line.
Kaptai Dhaka
I2I

Therefore we conclude that it is not


Equation for
I I
wise to increase the line current tois
power
transmit more power over a line,
P= V I Cos 
keeping the voltage same.
Loss in
Why high voltage transmission
line = I2R,
Basically it is requiredRfor transmission
is the resistance lines to be
of the line.
able to transmit more power over the same line.
Kaptai Dhaka
I

I 2V
Therefore we see that if the transmission
Transformer Equation for
line voltage is increased it is power
capable
is of
transmitting
V more power without
P= V I Cos 
increasing the power loss in the line.
I I

Generator
Trends in voltage growth
Ac voltage
Unfortunately it is
a very old data.
Students
In our country theare
highest requested
operating to
voltage isupdate
400kV.it.
We may realize our
position related to
the global trend.
Trends in voltage growth
dc voltage

Unfortunately
In our country we
HVDC transmission
has been do not have
proven to any
HVDC
be less attractive to
the power transmission
system
system so far.
engineers.
Fields of applications of HV

• Power system engineering


• Research laboratories
• IndustriesInterested
• Nuclear research, particle
students
accelerators
may find
new areas
• Electrostatic of
precipitators
application
• Automobile of coils
ignition HV
• Medical applications like X-ray
machine
What we learn in
High Voltage
Engineering
• Testing of HV equipments like
power transformers, bushings,
CB, insulators, cables etc.
• Usually tests are done at a
voltage much higher than the
operating voltage.
• Generation, measurement and
control of different types of HV.
What we learn in
High Voltage
Engineering
• Failure mechanism of HV equipments
caused by HV stress.
• Breakdown mechanism of different types
of insulating materials ( solid, liquid, gas,
vacuum) under different types of voltages
(ac, dc, li, si).
• Computer simulation of HV systems so as
to (i) forecast before causing actual
breakdown (ii) Provide guideline towards
improved design.
• Provide technical assistance toward
designing HV equipments to be operated at
further higher voltages.
Few future prospects
of HV
• For cosmopolitan cities overhead
distributionInterested
lines are not allowed any
more. HV underground
students may addcables of
compact size is the solution.
• Compact new names fix-and-forget
all-in-one to this type
GIS substations list.
are required in near
future.
• HV has some residential and industrial
applications like water treatment plant,
insect killer/repeller, exhaust air
purifier etc.
ac High Voltage
?
Suppose it is said that the
voltage is 100kV.
Then this peak value is
=100 X 103 X 2 volt

Voltage  140kV
In
kV
In high voltage engineering,
we should always be careful
100kV
about the peak value power
of the ac
frequency
voltage, because this isacthe
voltage
maximum voltage in the
system and may be responsible
Time
for initiating breakdown or In
failure. ms

?
10 ms
dc High Voltage100kV
Voltage
In
?
kV

100kV
dc voltage

Time
In
ms
Lightning Impulse
Voltage
In 90%
American
standard is
?
500k
V
kV 1.5/40 µS
500kV
50% li

10%
Is there any Standard li
t0
Bangladesh 1/50 µS
t1 t2standard ? t3 AsTime
per BSS &
In
μs ISS
Wave front
=1.25(t2-t1) Wave tail
=t3-t0
Switching Impulse
Voltage
In 90%
?
500k
V
kV
500kV
50% li

10% Standard si
t0 250/2500,
t3 120/1000
Time µS
t1 t2 In
μs
Wave front
=1.25(t2-t1) Wave tail
=t3-t0