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Reproduction

What’s the difference in these


two forms of reproduction?
Specific Learning Outcomes
• Identify the different ways how plants
reproduce.
• Differentiate asexual reproduction from
asexual reproduction.
• Learn the advantage and disadvantage of
both types of reproduction.
• Relate how the different types of
reproduction are being used in farming
practices in the Philippines
Reproduction
is one of the characteristics of life. It is
a biological process in which new
individual organisms are produced,
may it be sexual or asexual. Sexual
reproduction involves the union of
gametes (egg cell and sperm cell)
through fertilization. Meanwhile,
asexual reproduction involves the
creation of cloned offspring from a
parent organism.
Reproduction
Asexual
vs.
Sexual
Use the Types of Reproduction
Chart to take Notes
Sexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
Type of reproduction in which
two parent cells (male and
female reproductive cells)
combine to form offspring
with genetic material from
both cells.
Sexual Reproduction
 Each species of living things has
a characteristic number of
chromosomes.
 Humans have 23 pairs, for a total of
46 chromosomes.
Sexual Reproduction
Sexual Reproduction
In plants, flowers play a major
role in sexual reproduction as it
houses the structures for this
process.
Pollination is the process of transferring
pollen from an anther to a stigma.
There are various ways in which
pollination occurs whether through self-
pollination, wherein the pollen is transferred
to the stigma of a plant’s own flower, or
cross-pollination wherein pollen from a
different plant is delivered to a stigma of a
flower of a different plant. Pollination is
needed in order for fertilization to occur.
Compared to self-pollination, cross-
pollination can increase genetic diversity of
plants as genes from two different
individuals are shared by the offspring.
There are different methods on how
pollen is transferred from one anther to one
stigma. Mainly, pollination is through biotic
means (80%) and among abiotic methods
of pollination, wind (98%) and water (2%)
are the main agents.
Biotic Pollinators
 Bees- rely on nectars from flowers for they
food, as such they pollinate flowers with
delicate, sweet fragrance. They are also
attracted to bright colrs, yellow and blue.
Red might be dull to them, but, flowers
were able to evolve by creating
ultraviolet markings as nectar guides as
bees can see ultraviolet light.
 Moths and butterflies – like bees, detect
odors and pollinate flowers with sweet
fragrance. The difference in activity of a
butterfly and a moth allows pollination of
different plants, as butterflies are
attracted to bright flowers they are day
pollinators while moths, which are mostly
active at night, are attracted to white or
yellow flowers which are very distinct at
night.
 Bats – like moths are attracted to sweet
smelling lightly colored flowers which
stand out at night.
 Flies – are attracted to red, fleshy flowers
with a rank odor reminiscent of decaying
meat.
 Birds – do not have a keen sense of smell,
thus, flower fragrance is not a flower
character trait by plants pollinated by
birds. Birds are usually attracted to bright
flowers such as red and yellow. Also, their
nectar have high sugar content which is
needed by birds
After the process of pollination, the
process of fertilization might occur, which
can result in the development of a seed
which houses the embryo of a future plant
Asexual
Reproduction
Asexual Reproduction
 Most unicellular organisms, and a few
multicellular organisms use cell
division to reproduce in a process
called asexual reproduction.

 A parent organism produces one or


more new organisms that are identical
to the parent and live independently
of the parent
Asexual Reproduction
 The organism that produces the
new organism or organism is the
parent

 Each new organism is an offspring

 The offspring produced by asexual


reproduction are genetically
identical to the parent.
Other Examples of
Asexual Reproduction
In plants, as some organs grow
indeterminately due to tissues that can actively
divide (meristem- actively dividing cells) and
revert to non-specialized structures
(parenchyma tissues). This indeterminate
growth can lead to a form of reproduction
called asexual reproduction, as these organs
can separate from the parent plant with the
ability to grow and develop.
Fragmentation
 the most common method of asexual
reproduction, can occur through growth
from a stem, leaf, root and other plant
organ which gained the ability
comparable to parent plant.
Not all asexual reproduction is a
product of fragmentation, plants can also
produced seeds without the process of
pollination and fertilization, called apomixis.
Apomixis occurs when diploid cells in the
ovule creates an embryo, this can later
result in the formation of a seed.
Furthermore, vegetative propagation and
grafting are natural and man-made
processes of asexual reproduction
different types of
vegetative propagation:
 Stems: that grow horizontally above the
ground is called a runner. The nodes of
these plants can allow asexual
reproduction through bud growth.
Example of this is grass.
 Roots: swollen roots called tubers can
allow asexual reproduction. Example of
this is the swollen root of a cassava, not
that of a potato. Potatoes are stems, as
evidenced of their nodes.
 Leaves: that are succulent, such as the
catacataca leaf, can allow asexual
reproduction.
 Bulbs: such as onion (each skin is a leaf)
and garlic (each piece is a modified stem
and leaf) is attached to an underground
stem. Each can form a new bulb
underground.
Artificial propagation
 Grafting: is composed of the stock
(rooted part of the plant) and the scion
(the attached part). This is usually done to
hasten the reproductive ability of a plant,
grow a selected fruiting plant, etc.
 Layering: like what happens to a runner,
wherein, a shoot of a parent plant is bent
and is covered by soil. This stimulates root
growth, after which, the plants can be
separated.
 Cutting:is done to propagate a plant by
cutting the stem at an angle of a shoot
with attached leaves. Sometimes, growth
stimulator is given.
Investigating
Reproductive Strategies
Activity
Summarizer:
Comparing
Asexual &
Sexual
Reproduction