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SUB-TOPICS:

• WHAT?
• TYPES
• CASE STUDIES
WHAT IS POPULATION POLICY?
• ANY POLICY INTRODUCED BY A GOVERNMENT AIMED AT CHANGING POPULATION GROWTH,
DISTRIBUTION OR COMPOSITION.

• TYPES:
1. ANTI NATALIST POLICY – POLICY THAT ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO HAVE FEWER CHILDREN.
2. PRO NATALIST POLICY-POLICY THAT ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO HAVE MORE CHILDREN.
POPULATION POLICY IN CHINA (VIDEO)
• WHY CHINA NEEDED AN ANTI NATAL POLICY?
• WHAT THEIR POLICY IS AND HOW IT IS ENFORCED?
• THE IMPACTS THEIR POLICY HAS HAD
• WHETHER IT HAS BEEN SUCCESSFUL
FROM VIDEO CHINA POPULATION’S POLICY:
Why need this -Growing no. of population:
policy? -1,344,130,000 with area 9598094 km2.
-move mouth to feed, starvation, problem of overpopulation such as pollution, low technology
in farming –move to city
What is the policy -one child policy implemented 1979.
about? -each couple to have one per couple.
How enforced? How? Fine, incentive tax, force abortion, etc.
Impacts: Imbalance male and female ratio
-male difficult to find a bride, married international.
-use oultrasound-choose gender.
1st male
2nd male –give to other
If 3rd female –give up for adoption.
-only child –spoil child-nurthure or pampered. (favoured male than female.
-force abortion without approval-against human right , genocide.
At present Own choice, policy need to be adjusted if not aborted.
POPULATION POLICY IN SINGAPORE:
HIGH BIRTH RATE THE GOVERNMENT INTRODUCE ANTI NATALIST POLICY. HOW?
• MAKING CONTRACEPTIVES AVAILABLE AT A LOW COST.
• CREATING FAMILY PLANNING CLINICS TO HELP MAKE ADVICE MORE AVAILABLE.
• PUBLICISING THROUGH THE MEDIA THE ADVANTAGES OF HAVING A SMALLER FAMILY.
• INTRODUCING FINANCIAL INCENTIVES FOR SMALLER FAMILIES (SUCH AS FREE EDUCATION AND HEALTH
CARE BENEFITS). THE FINANCIAL SUPPORT STOPPED WITH LARGER FAMILIES.
IMPACT:
• THE FERTILITY RATE HAS DROPPED TO 1.2 IN 2011.
• THERE WERE INSUFFICIENT WORKERS TO FILL JOB VACANCIES BECAUSE OF THE DECREASE IN THE BIRTH
RATE.
• SINGAPORE HAS AN AGEING POPULATION.
• THE CHANGE IN THE BIRTH RATE WAS MORE DRAMATIC BECAUSE IT WAS ALSO CAUSED BY THE
INCREASING DEVELOPMENT OF SINGAPORE, MEANING THAT MORE WOMEN FOLLOWED CAREERS RATHER
THAN STARTING A FAMILY. THIS MEANT THE BIRTH RATE FELL BECAUSE OF FACTORS NOT DIRECTLY
BECAUSE OF THE POLICY.
AS A RESULT OF THE DECLINE IN THE BIRTH RATE, IN 1984 THE SINGAPORE GOVERNMENT STARTED TO
REVERSE THE ANTI-NATALIST POLICY. IN 1987 SOME PRO-NATALIST POLICIES WERE INTRODUCED.
• THE PHRASE "HAVE THREE OR MORE CHILDREN IF YOU CAN AFFORD IT" WAS PROMOTED BY THE
GOVERNMENT.
• FINANCIAL BENEFITS WERE GIVEN TO ENCOURAGE FEMALE GRADUATESTO HAVE MORE THAN THREE
CHILDREN.
• A BABY BONUS SCHEME WAS INTRODUCED WHICH GAVE CASH TO NEW MOTHERS.
• SINGAPORE HAS ALSO RECENTLY INTRODUCED CARER'S LEAVE FOR FATHERS.
• OTHER ATTEMPTS TO INCREASE THE BIRTH RATE HAVE BEEN TO SEND OUT VALENTINE CARDS
ENCOURAGING PEOPLE TO "MAKE LOVE, NOT MONEY". THEY ALSO ARRANGE WEEKEND CRUISES TO HELP
MATCH-MAKE POTENTIAL COUPLES. THESE SCHEMES HAVE YET TO BE PROVED SUCCESSFUL.