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CHAPTER 9

GAS POWER CYCLES

Lecture # 8
OBJECTIVES
• Review the operation of reciprocating engines (IC Engines)
• Analyze both closed and open gas power cycles.
• Analyze Otto, Diesel, Stirling, and Ericsson cycles.
• Brayton cycle
• Analyze jet-propulsion cycles.
Thermodynamic Cycles
- power cycles and refrigeration cycles
Power Cycle
- Gas cycles and Vapor cycles
Thermodynamic Cycles
- Closed and Open cycles
Heat Engines
- internal combustion (IC) engines and external
combustion engines
Gas power Cycles??
IC engines, Gas power plants, Jet engines
9-1 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS IN THE
ANALYSIS OF POWER CYCLES
Most power-producing devices operate on cycles.
Ideal cycle: A cycle that resembles the actual cycle
closely but is made up totally of internally reversible
processes is called an ideal cycle.
Reversible cycles such as Carnot cycle have the
highest thermal efficiency of all heat engines
operating between the same temperature levels.
Unlike ideal cycles, they are totally reversible, and
unsuitable as a realistic model.

Modeling is a
powerful
engineering tool
that provides great
insight and
simplicity at the
expense of some
The analysis of many complex
loss in accuracy. processes can be reduced to
a manageable level by
4
utilizing some idealizations.
The ideal cycles are internally reversible, but, unlike the Carnot cycle, they are not

necessarily externally reversible. Therefore, the thermal efficiency of an ideal

cycle, in general, is less than that of a totally reversible cycle operating between

the same temperature limits. However, it is still considerably higher than the

thermal efficiency of an actual cycle because of the idealizations utilized.


6
The idealizations and simplifications in the
analysis of power cycles:
On a T-s diagram, the ratio of the
area enclosed by the cyclic curve to 1. The cycle does not involve any friction.
the area under the heat-addition Therefore, the working fluid does not
process curve represents the thermal experience any pressure drop as it flows in
efficiency of the cycle. Any pipes or devices such as heat exchangers.
modification that increases the ratio 2. All expansion and compression processes
of these two areas will also increase take place in a quasi-equilibrium manner.
3. The pipes connecting the various
the thermal efficiency of the components of a system are well
cycle.
insulated, and heat transfer through them
is negligible.

On both P-v and T-s diagrams, the area enclosed


by the process curve represents the net work of the
cycle.
9-2 THE CARNOT CYCLE AND
ITS VALUE IN ENGINEERING
The Carnot cycle is composed of four totally reversible
processes: isothermal heat addition, isentropic
expansion, isothermal heat rejection, and isentropic
compression.
For both ideal and actual cycles: Thermal efficiency
increases with an increase in the average temperature
at which heat is supplied to the system or with a
decrease in the average temperature at which heat is
rejected from the system.

P-v and T-s diagrams of


a Carnot cycle.
A steady-flow Carnot engine. 7
9-3 AIR-STANDARD ASSUMPTIONS
Air-standard assumptions:
1. The working fluid is air, which
continuously circulates in a closed loop
and always behaves as an ideal gas.
2. All the processes that make up the
cycle are internally reversible.
3. The combustion process is replaced by
a heat-addition process from an
external source.
4. The exhaust process is replaced by a
heat-rejection process that restores the
working fluid to its initial state.
The combustion process is replaced by
a heat-addition process in ideal cycles.

Cold-air-standard assumptions: When the working fluid is considered


to be air with constant specific heats at room temperature (25°C).
Air-standard cycle: A cycle for which the air-standard assumptions are
applicable.
9-4 AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES

Internal Combustion Engines (IC)


Based on the Ignition
• Spark-ignition (SI) engines

• Compression-ignition (CI) engines

SI engines, the combustion of the air–fuel mixture is initiated by a


spark plug.
CI engines, air is compressed to a high enough pressure and
temperature (self-ignition temperature) that combustion occurs
spontaneously when fuel is injected.
Based on the Working Cycle
• Four Stroke Engines

• Two Stroke Engines


Nomenclature

Nomenclature for reciprocating engines.

Volume displaced by the piston as it moves


between TDC and BDC is called the
displacement volume.

minimum volume formed in the cylinder when the


piston is at TDC is called the clearance volume
Compression ratio
ratio of the maximum volume formed in the cylinder to the minimum (clearance)
volume is called the compression ratio r of the engine

Mean Effective Pressure (MEP)


It is a fictitious pressure that, if it acted
on the piston during the entire power stroke, would
produce the same amount of net work as that
produced during the actual cycle

For two engines of equal displacement volume, the


one with a higher mean effective pressure would
produce the greater net work and, if the engines run
at the same speed.
Spark-ignition engines VS Compression-ignition
S.no Parameter SI Engine CI Engine

1.
Definition It is an engine in which the spark is It is and engine in which heat of
used to burn the fuel. compressed air is used to burn the fuel.
2.
Fuel used Petrol is used as fuel. Diesel is used as fuel.
3.
Operating cycle It operates on Otto cycle. It operates on Diesel cycle.
4.
Compression ratio Low compression ratio. High compression ratio.
5.
Thermal efficiency High thermal efficiency. Less thermal efficiency.
6.
Method of ignition Spark plug is used to produce spark Heat of compressed air is used for the
for the ignition. ignition.
7.
Engine Speed High speed engines. Low speed engines.
8.
Pressure generated Low pressure is generated after High pressure is generated
combustion. after combustion.
9.
Constant parameter during Constant volume cycle. Constant pressure cycle.
cycle
10.
Intake Air + fuel. Only air.
Weight of engine Si engine has less weight. CI engine are heavier.
12.
Noise production It produces less noise. It produces more noise.
13.
Production of hydrocarbon Less Hydrocarbon is produced. More hydrocarbon is produced.
14.
Starting Starting of SI engine is easy. Starting of CI engine is difficult.
15.
Maintenance cost Low High
16.
Vibration problem Less Very High
17.
Cost of engine Less cost High cost
18.
Volume to power ratio Less High
19.
Fuel supply Carburetor/ EFI Injector
20.
application It is used in light commercial It is used in heavy duty vehicles likes
vehicles like motorcycle, cars etc. bus, trucks, ships etc.
Type of fuel used: In SI engines petrol or gasoline is used as fuel, hence these
engines are also called petrol engines. In CI engines diesel is used as fuel,
hence they are also called diesel engines.
Type of cycle used: In the case of SI engines, the Otto cycle is used. In this
cycle, addition of heat or fuel combustion occurs at a constant volume. The basis
of working of CI engines is the Diesel cycle. In this cycle the addition of heat or
fuel combustion occurs at a constant pressure.
Introduction of fuel in the engine: In the case of SI engines, a mixture of air
and fuel is injected via the carburetor/EFI. In the case of CI engines, fuel is
injected into the combustion chamber towards the end of the compression
stroke. The fuel starts burning instantly due to the high pressure. To inject diesel
in SI engines, a fuel pump and injector are required. In CI engines, the quantity
of fuel to be injected is controlled but the quantity of air to be injected is not
controlled.
Ignition of fuel: By nature petrol is a highly volatile liquid, but its self-ignition
temperature is high. To generate this spark in SI engines, the spark plug is
placed in the cylinder head, voltage is provided to the spark plug from the
battery. With diesel, the self-ignition temperature is comparatively lower. Hence
in the case of CI engines, the ignition of fuel occurs due to compression of the
air, and diesel is sprayed on compressed air, there is no need for spark plugs.
Compression ratio for the fuel: In the case of SI engines, the compression ratio
of the fuel is in the range of 6 to 10 depending on the size of the engine and the
power to be produced. In CI engines, the compression ratio for air is 16 to 20. The
high compression ratio of air creates high temperatures, which ensures the diesel
fuel can self-ignite.
Weight of the engines: In CI engines the compression ratio is higher, which
produces high pressures inside the engine. Hence CI engines are heavier than SI
engines.
Speed achieved by the engine: Petrol or SI engines are lightweight, and the fuel
is homogeneously burned, hence achieving very high speeds. CI engines are
heavier and the fuel is burned heterogeneously, hence producing lower speeds.

Thermal efficiency of the engine: In the case of CI engines the value of


compression ratio is higher; hence these engines have the potential to achieve
higher thermal efficiency. In the case of SI engines the lower compression ratio
reduces their potential to achieve higher thermal efficiency.
CHAPTER 9
GAS POWER CYCLES

Lecture # 9
9-4 AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES

Nomenclature for reciprocating engines.

minimum volume formed in the cylinder when the piston is at TDC is called the
clearance volume

Volume displaced by the piston as it moves between TDC and BDC is called
the displacement volume.
9-4 AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES
Compression Ratio: ratio of the maximum volume formed in the cylinder to the
minimum (clearance) volume is called the compression ratio r of the engine

Compression ratio

Mean Effective Pressure (MEP)

It is a fictitious pressure that, if it acted


on the piston during the entire power stroke, would
produce the same amount of net work as that
produced during the actual cycle
Internal Combustion Engines (IC)
Based on the Ignition
• Spark-ignition (SI) engines

• Four Stroke Engines

• Two Stroke Engines


Four Stroke Cycle animation
One thermodynamic
cycle
2 rotations of
crankshaft
4 strokes of piston

1. Initially, both the intake and the exhaust valves are closed, and the piston is at its lowest
position (BDC).
2. During the compression stroke, the piston moves upward, compressing the air–fuel
mixture.
3. Shortly before the piston reaches its highest position (TDC), the spark plug fires and the
mixture ignites, increasing the pressure and temperature of the system.
4. The high-pressure gases force the piston down, which in turn forces the crankshaft to
rotate, producing a useful work output during the expansion or power stroke.
5. At the end of this stroke, the piston is at its lowest position (the completion of the first
mechanical cycle), and the cylinder is filled with combustion products.
6. Now the piston moves upward one more time, purging the exhaust gases through the
exhaust valve (the exhaust stroke),
7. Then the piston moves down a second time, drawing in fresh air–fuel mixture through the
intake valve (the intake stroke).
20

2-Stroke Cycle (animation)


• Two-stroke engines
• power stroke
• compression stroke
1. The crankcase is sealed, and the outward motion of the
piston is used to slightly pressurize the air–fuel mixture in
the crankcase
2. The intake and exhaust valves are replaced by openings in
the lower portion of the cylinder wall.
3. During the latter part of the power stroke, the piston
uncovers first the exhaust port, allowing the exhaust gases
to be partially expelled, and then the intake port, allowing
the fresh air–fuel mixture to rush in and drive most of the
remaining exhaust gases out of the cylinder.
4. This mixture is then compressed as the piston moves
upward during the compression stroke and is subsequently
ignited by a spark plug.
21

OTTO CYCLE: THE IDEAL CYCLE FOR


SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES

Ideal and actual cycles in spark-ignition engines and their P-v diagrams.
22

Analysis of Otto Cycle

closed system energy balance assuming


that changes in kinetic and potential
energy can be ignored

For the isentropic processes 1–2 and 3–4


When the Otto cycle is analyzed on a cold air-standard basis
24

In SI engines, the compression


ratio is limited by autoignition or
engine knock.

The thermal efficiency of the Otto


cycle increases with the specific
heat ratio k of the working fluid.
argon or helium, k 1.667
1.4 for air,
1.3 for carbon dioxide,
1.2 for ethane

thermal efficiencies of actual spark-ignition Thermal efficiency of the ideal Otto cycle as
engines range from about 25 to 30 percent
a function of compression ratio (k = 1.4).
CHAPTER 9
GAS POWER CYCLES

Lecture # 10
9-4 AN OVERVIEW OF RECIPROCATING ENGINES

Internal Combustion Engines (IC)


Based on the Ignition
• Compression-ignition (CI) engines

• Four Stroke Engines

• Two Stroke Engines

Animation of the CI engines


DIESEL Cycle
Analysis of Diesel Cycle 29
Cutoff ratio

Process 2–3 involves both work and heat

The heat added in Process 2–3 can be found by


applying the closed system energy balance
cold air-standard analysis

Thermal efficiency of
the ideal Diesel cycle
as a function of
compression and
cutoff ratios (k=1.4).
Spark-ignition engines VS Compression-ignition
S.no Parameter SI Engine CI Engine

1.
Definition It is an engine in which the spark is It is and engine in which heat of
used to burn the fuel. compressed air is used to burn the fuel.
2.
Fuel used Petrol is used as fuel. Diesel is used as fuel.
3.
Operating cycle It operates on Otto cycle. It operates on Diesel cycle.
4.
Compression ratio Low compression ratio. High compression ratio.
5.
Thermal efficiency High thermal efficiency. Less thermal efficiency.
6.
Method of ignition Spark plug is used to produce spark Heat of compressed air is used for the
for the ignition. ignition.
7.
Engine Speed High speed engines. Low speed engines.
8.
Pressure generated Low pressure is generated after High pressure is generated
combustion. after combustion.
9.
Constant parameter during Constant volume cycle. Constant pressure cycle.
cycle
10.
Intake Air + fuel. Only air.
Weight of engine Si engine has less weight. CI engine are heavier.
12.
Noise production It produces less noise. It produces more noise.
13.
Production of hydrocarbon Less Hydrocarbon is produced. More hydrocarbon is produced.
14.
Starting Starting of SI engine is easy. Starting of CI engine is difficult.
15.
Maintenance cost Low High
16.
Vibration problem Less Very High
17.
Cost of engine Less cost High cost
18.
Volume to power ratio Less High
19.
Fuel supply Carburetor/ EFI Injector
20.
application It is used in light commercial It is used in heavy duty vehicles likes
vehicles like motorcycle, cars etc. bus, trucks, ships etc.
Type of fuel used: In SI engines petrol or gasoline is used as fuel, hence these
engines are also called petrol engines. In CI engines diesel is used as fuel,
hence they are also called diesel engines.
Type of cycle used: In the case of SI engines, the Otto cycle is used. In this
cycle, addition of heat or fuel combustion occurs at a constant volume. The basis
of working of CI engines is the Diesel cycle. In this cycle the addition of heat or
fuel combustion occurs at a constant pressure.
Introduction of fuel in the engine: In the case of SI engines, a mixture of air
and fuel is injected via the carburetor/EFI. In the case of CI engines, fuel is
injected into the combustion chamber towards the end of the compression
stroke. The fuel starts burning instantly due to the high pressure. To inject diesel
in SI engines, a fuel pump and injector are required. In CI engines, the quantity
of fuel to be injected is controlled but the quantity of air to be injected is not
controlled.
Ignition of fuel: By nature petrol is a highly volatile liquid, but its self-ignition
temperature is high. To generate this spark in SI engines, the spark plug is
placed in the cylinder head, voltage is provided to the spark plug from the
battery. With diesel, the self-ignition temperature is comparatively lower. Hence
in the case of CI engines, the ignition of fuel occurs due to compression of the
air, and diesel is sprayed on compressed air, there is no need for spark plugs.
Compression ratio for the fuel: In the case of SI engines, the compression ratio
of the fuel is in the range of 6 to 10 depending on the size of the engine and the
power to be produced. In CI engines, the compression ratio for air is 16 to 20. The
high compression ratio of air creates high temperatures, which ensures the diesel
fuel can self-ignite.
Weight of the engines: In CI engines the compression ratio is higher, which
produces high pressures inside the engine. Hence CI engines are heavier than SI
engines.
Speed achieved by the engine: Petrol or SI engines are lightweight, and the fuel
is homogeneously burned, hence achieving very high speeds. CI engines are
heavier and the fuel is burned heterogeneously, hence producing lower speeds.

Thermal efficiency of the engine: In the case of CI engines the value of


compression ratio is higher; hence these engines have the potential to achieve
higher thermal efficiency. In the case of SI engines the lower compression ratio
reduces their potential to achieve higher thermal efficiency.
CHAPTER 9
GAS POWER CYCLES

Lecture # 11
• Otto Cycle (Spark Ignition Engine)
• Diesel Cycle ( Compression Engine)

• Constant volume heat addition in Otto cycle and


Constant pressure heat addition in Diesel cycle are more
idealistic.

• Close to real combustion


process is dual cycle:
36

Air Standard Dual Cycle:


Dual cycle: A more realistic
ideal cycle model for modern,
high-speed compression ignition
engine.

P-v diagram of an ideal dual cycle.


Octane No. & Cetane No.
• Octane Number/ Rating (ON): Defines the ability of a fuel to
resist auto-ignition with increase in compression ratio
• High octane number fuels are desired for gasoline engines
• For n-heptane, ON = 0 and for iso-octane, ON = 100

• Cetane Number (CN): Relates to the ability of fuel to ignite


quickly
• CN is opposite to ON
• Fuels with higher cetane number have shorter ignition delays providing
more time for the fuel combustion process to be completed

• Both ON and CN are experimentally measured using


Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine operating under
standard test conditions
Turbo-Charger
A turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion
engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra compressed air into the
combustion chamber. This improvement over a naturally aspirated engine's power
output is due to the fact that the compressor can force more air—and
proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric
pressure alone.
Example 1
The temperature at the beginning of the compression process of
an air-standard Otto cycle with a compression ratio of 8 is
300K, the pressure is 1 bar, and the cylinder volume is 560 cm3.
The maximum temperature during the cycle is 2000K.
Determine (a) the temperature and pressure at the end of each
process of the cycle, (b) thermal efficiency, and (c) the mean
effective pressure, in atm. (d) thermal efficiency at cold-air
standard assumption
Example 2
Consider petrol engine working on cold Air-standard Otto cycle,
the minimum pressure and temperature in an Otto cycle are 100
kPa and 27°C. The amount of heat added to the air per cycle is
1500 kJ/kg.
(i) Determine the pressures and temperatures at all points of
Otto cycle.
(ii) Also calculate the specific work and thermal efficiency of
the cycle for a compression ratio of 8 : 1.
Take for air : Cv = 0.72 kJ/kgK, and γ = 1.4.
CH # 09
GAS POWER CYCLES
Lecture # 13
43

GAS-TURBINE ENGINES
The two major application areas of gas-turbine engines are aircraft
propulsion and electric power generation. (See Video Link)

An open-cycle gas-turbine engine.


A closed-cycle gas-turbine engine.
44

BRAYTON CYCLE: THE IDEAL CYCLE FOR


GAS-TURBINE ENGINES
The combustion process is replaced by a constant-pressure heat-addition
process from an external source, and the exhaust process is replaced by a
constant-pressure heat-rejection process to the ambient air.
1-2 Isentropic compression (in a compressor)
2-3 Constant-pressure heat addition
3-4 Isentropic expansion (in a turbine)
4-1 Constant-pressure heat rejection

An open-cycle gas-turbine engine. A closed-cycle gas-turbine engine.


Efficiency of Brayton Cycle

Back Work Ratio

back work ratios


of gas turbines
range from 40 to
80%.

T-s and P-v diagrams for


the ideal Brayton cycle.
To find unknown Pressures in the Brayton cycle
47

For Cold-Air Standard Assumptions


constant Cp, and thus constant specific heat ratio k

Pressure
ratio

T-s and P-v diagrams for


the ideal Brayton cycle.
Cycle A has a greater compressor
pressure ratio than cycle B and thus
the greater thermal efficiency.
However, cycle B has a larger
enclosed area and thus the greater
net work developed per unit of
mass flow. Accordingly, for cycle A
to develop the same net power
output as cycle B, a larger mass
flow rate would be required, which
might dictate a larger system

How to determine
compressor pressure ratio
for maximum net work per
unit of mass ?
To determine the pressure ratio that maximizes the net work output per unit of
mass flow, first form the derivative
50

Development of Gas Turbines


1. Increasing the turbine inlet (or firing) temperatures
2. Increasing the efficiencies of turbomachinery components (turbines,
compressors):
3. Adding modifications to the basic cycle (intercooling, regeneration or
recuperation, and reheating).

Deviation of Actual Gas-


Turbine Cycles from Idealized
Ones
Reasons: Irreversibilities in turbine and
compressors, pressure drops, heat losses

Isentropic efficiencies of the compressor


and turbine

The deviation of an actual gas-


turbine cycle from the ideal
Brayton cycle as a result of
irreversibilities.
CH # 09
GAS POWER CYCLES
Lecture # 14
52

Development of Gas Turbines


1. Increasing the turbine inlet (or firing) temperatures
2. Increasing the efficiencies of turbomachinery components (turbines,
compressors):
3. Adding modifications to the basic cycle (intercooling, regeneration or
recuperation, and reheating).

Deviation of Actual Gas-


Turbine Cycles from Idealized
Ones
Reasons: Irreversibilities in turbine and
compressors, pressure drops, heat losses

Isentropic efficiencies of the compressor


and turbine

The deviation of an actual gas-


turbine cycle from the ideal
Brayton cycle as a result of
irreversibilities.
Modification in Simple Brayton Cycle

• Regeneration

• Intercooling

• Reheating

T-s and P-v diagrams for


the ideal Brayton cycle.
THE BRAYTON CYCLE WITH
REGENERATION
In gas-turbine engines, the temperature of the exhaust
gas leaving the turbine is often considerably higher than
the temperature of the air leaving the compressor.
Therefore, the high-pressure air leaving the compressor
can be heated by the hot exhaust gases in a counter-flow
heat exchanger (a regenerator or a recuperator).
The thermal efficiency of the Brayton cycle increases as a
result of regeneration since less fuel is used for the same
work output.
T-s diagram of a Brayton
cycle with regeneration.

A gas-turbine engine with regenerator.


Effectiveness
of regenerator
Effectiveness under cold-air standard
assumptions
Under cold-air
standard assumptions

T-s diagram of a Brayton


cycle with regeneration. Can regeneration
be used at high
The thermal efficiency pressure ratios?
depends on the ratio of the
minimum to maximum
temperatures as well as the Thermal
pressure ratio. efficiency of
the ideal
Regeneration is most
effective at lower pressure Brayton cycle
ratios and low minimum-to- with and
maximum temperature ratios. without
regeneration.
Gas Turbines with Reheat
For metallurgical reasons, the temperature entering the turbine must
be limited. This temperature can be controlled by providing air in
excess to burn the fuel in the combustor. As a consequence, the gases
exiting the combustor contain sufficient air to support the combustion
of additional fuel.

 Net work for the reheat cycle is greater than that of the cycle without reheat
 thermal efficiency would not necessarily increase because a greater total heat
addition would be required
 temperature at the exit of the turbine is higher with reheat, so the potential for
regeneration is enhanced.
Compression with Intercooling
Although cooling a gas as it is compressed
would reduce the work,
A heat transfer rate high enough to effect a
significant reduction in work is difficult to achieve
in practice.

A practical alternative is compression


take place in stages with intercoolers
Some large compressors have several stages of compression with
intercooling between stages.
The use of multistage compression with intercooling increases
the net work developed by reducing the compression work.
However, compression with intercooling would not necessarily
increase the thermal efficiency of a gas turbine
Because the temperature of the air entering the combustor
would be reduced

The lower temperature at the compressor exit


enhances the potential for regeneration, however, so
when intercooling is used in conjunction with
regeneration, an appreciable increase in thermal
efficiency can result
For minimizing work input to
THE BRAYTON CYCLE WITH compressor and maximizing
INTERCOOLING, REHEATING, work output from turbine:
AND REGENERATION

A gas-turbine engine with two-stage compression with intercooling, two-stage


expansion with reheating, and regeneration and its T-s diagram.
Example
Air enters the compressor of an ideal air-standard Brayton cycle at 100 kPa, 300 K,
with a volumetric flow rate of 5 m3/s. The compressor pressure ratio is 10. The
turbine inlet temperature is 1400 K. Determine
1. (a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, (b) the back work ratio, (c) the net power
developed, in kW.
2. include in the analysis that the turbine and compressor each have an isentropic
efficiency of 80%. Determine for the modified cycle (a) the thermal efficiency of
the cycle, (b) the back work ratio, (c) the net power developed, in kW.
CH # 09
GAS POWER CYCLES
Lecture # 15
Example 1
Air enters the compressor of an ideal air-standard Brayton cycle at 100 kPa, 300 K,
with a volumetric flow rate of 5 m3/s. The compressor pressure ratio is 10. The
turbine inlet temperature is 1400 K. Determine
(a) the thermal efficiency of the cycle, (b) the back work ratio, (c) the net power
developed, in kW.
2. Include in the analysis that the turbine and compressor each have an isentropic

efficiency of 80%. Determine for the modified cycle (a) the thermal efficiency of the

cycle, (b) the back work ratio, (c) the net power developed, in kW.
3. A regenerator is incorporated in the cycle, Determine the

thermal efficiency for a regenerator effectiveness of 80%.


4. Consider a modification of the cycle of involving reheat and regeneration. Air
enters the compressor at 100 kPa, 300 K and is compressed to 1000 kPa. The
temperature at the inlet to the first turbine stage is 1400 K. The expansion takes
place isentropically in two stages, with reheat to 1400 K between the stages at a
constant pressure of 300 kPa. A regenerator having an effectiveness of 100% is
also incorporated in the cycle. Determine the thermal efficiency.
Quiz-3 (Internal Combustion Engines)

Quiz-4 (Gas Turbine)

Wednesday ( 2nd October, 5:30 PM)


CH # 09
GAS POWER CYCLES
Lecture # 16
Stirling & Ericsson Cycles

Introduction:
1. Otto & Diesel cycles do not consist of completely reversible
processes
2. Stirling & Ericsson cycles consist of reversible processes only
3. Their efficiency is equal to that of Carnot cycle
4. These engines are external combustion engines
5. Historically, Stirling engines were developed to compete with
Steam Engine
6. Stirling engine patented in 1816
7. Ericsson patented Brayton cycle based engine in 1833
8. (Otto engine patented in 1861 & Diesel engine patented in 1886)
69

STIRLING AND ERICSSON CYCLES


Stirling cycle
• 1-2 T = constant expansion (heat addition from the external source)
• 2-3 v = constant regeneration (internal heat transfer from the working fluid to the
regenerator)
• 3-4 T = constant compression (heat rejection to the external sink)
• 4-1 v = constant regeneration (internal heat transfer from the regenerator back to
the working fluid)

A regenerator is a device that


borrows energy from the working
fluid during one part of the cycle
and pays it back (without
interest) during another part.
70
The Stirling and Ericsson cycles Both the Stirling and Ericsson cycles are
give a message: Regeneration totally reversible, as is the Carnot cycle,
can increase efficiency. and thus:

The execution of the Stirling cycle.


71

Both the Stirling and Ericsson cycles are


totally reversible, as is the Carnot cycle,
and thus:

The Ericsson cycle is very much like the


Stirling cycle, except that the two constant-
volume processes are replaced by two
constant-pressure processes.

A steady-flow Ericsson engine.


Stirling & Ericsson Engines/Cycles
Advantages:
• Higher efficiency
• Variety of fuels / heat sources
• Better emission control

Limitations:
• Requires some time to warm up before it can produce useful
power.
• Can not change its power output quickly.
Engines Based on Stirling Cycle
• Various mechanical configurations based on Stirling cycle
have been proposed
• Stirling Engine on howstuffworks.com (link)
• Why Aren't Stirling Engines More Common?
Gas Turbine–Based Combined Cycles

Thermal efficiency of the


combined cycle is

net power developed by gas cycle

net power developed by vapor cycle


Energy transferred from the gas cycle to the vapor cycle is
obtained by applying the mass and energy rate balances to
a control volume enclosing the heat recovery steam
generator.
For steady-state operation, negligible heat transfer with the
surroundings, and no significant changes in kinetic and
potential energy
Integrated Gasification Combined-
Cycle Power Plants
CH # 09
GAS POWER CYCLES
Lecture # 17
IDEAL JET-PROPULSION CYCLES
Propeller Working
Engine of Jet
Engine
(Video)

Jet engine

TurboProp
Engine

Turbo Fan
Engine
79

IDEAL JET-PROPULSION CYCLES


Gas-turbine engines are widely used to power aircraft because they are light and
compact and have a high power-to-weight ratio.
Aircraft gas turbines operate on an open cycle called a jet-propulsion cycle.
The ideal jet-propulsion cycle differs from the simple ideal Brayton cycle in that the
gases are not expanded to the ambient pressure in the turbine. Instead, they are
expanded to a pressure such that the power produced by the turbine is just
sufficient to drive the compressor and the auxiliary equipment.
The net work output of a jet-propulsion cycle is zero. The gases that exit the turbine
at a relatively high pressure are subsequently accelerated in a nozzle to provide the
thrust to propel the aircraft.
Aircraft are propelled by accelerating a fluid in the opposite direction to motion. This
is accomplished by either slightly accelerating a large mass of fluid (propeller-
driven engine) or greatly accelerating a small mass of fluid (jet or turbojet engine)
or both (turboprop engine).

In jet engines, the high-


temperature and high-
pressure gases leaving the
turbine are accelerated in a
nozzle to provide thrust.
IDEAL JET-PROPULSION CYCLES

Thrust (propulsive force)

Propulsive power
Propulsive efficiency

Propulsive power is
the thrust acting on the
aircraft through a
distance per unit time.
Modifications to Turbojet Engines
The first airplanes built were all propeller-
driven, with propellers powered by engines
essentially identical to automobile engines.
Both propeller-driven engines and jet-
propulsion-driven engines have their own
strengths and limitations, and several attempts
have been made to combine the desirable
characteristics of both in one engine.
Two such modifications are the propjet engine Energy supplied to an aircraft
and the turbofan engine. (from the burning of a fuel)
manifests itself in various forms.

addition of an afterburner section between the turbine and the nozzle

for short takeoffs or combat conditions, additional fuel is injected into the oxygen-
rich combustion gases leaving the turbine
EAXMPLE
Process 1–2: (isentropic compression of an
ideal gas in a diffuser):
To find the air velocity at the nozzle exit

The propulsive efficiency of a turbojet engine


Assignment session
Problems:
36, 37, 38, 49, 50, 70, 80,
81, 88, 99, 119, 121, 129,
131