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Water Treatment Processes

Disinfection and removal of solids


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Water treatment processes

Contents
1. Aim of treatment
2. Removal of solids in suspension
3. Disinfection
4. Water treatment in emergencies
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1.Aim of treatment
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1. Aim of the treatment process


 Multiple options of treatment
 Safe water supply:
“All people have safe and equitable access to a sufficient quantity of
water for drinking, cooking and personal and domestic hygiene.”

“Water is palatable, and of sufficient quality to be drunk and used for


personal and domestic hygiene without causing significant risk to
health”

(The Sphere Project, Chap.2, Norms 1 y 2 )


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1. Aim of the treatment process


 Pathogen free
 Chemically safe
 Without dirt solid matter
 Aesthetically acceptable

WHO Guidelines
National Regulation
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1. Aim of the treatment process


 The treatment process starts in the water extraction
Source selection (surface water/groundwater)
Means of water extraction (strainer)
 The treatment process ends in the distribution
Storage and distribution
Jerry cans for the beneficiaries
Re-contamination risks
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2. Removal of solids in
suspension
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2. Removal of solids in suspension

 Why? - aspect
- efficiency of disinfection
 Control parameter: Gravity analysis
Turbidity (NTU)
 Aim: < 5 NTU
 Methods
Sedimentation
Flocculation
Filtration
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2. Removal of solids in suspension. Sedimentation

 Advantages: Simple, no consumption


 Disadvantages: Need of facilities, slow, limited
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2. Removal of solids in suspension. Flocculation


 Advantages: Removes colloids, time, equipment
 Disadvantages: Chemicals, factor control (temp. time, dosage)

colloids coagulation flocculation

sedimentation
dosage and mixture

polyelectrolyte
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2. Removal of solids in suspension. Filtration


 Advantages: No chemicals, modules, possible sterilization
 Disadvantages: Material (means of filtration) and facilities

Filtration + Back washing Absortion


Active carbon
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3. Disinfection
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3. Disinfection: Aims

 To destroy the germs present in the raw water

 To destroy the germs introduced in the treatment and


distribution systems (pipeline and storage)
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3. Disinfection: Procedures

 Properties of disinfection agents


 Physical agents: heat, UV radiation
 Chemical agents: chlorine, ozone, iodine, salts of
ammonium…
 Chlorination
 Calcium hypochlorite HTH 70 % of active chlorine
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Residual chlorine mg/l


3. Disinfection: Chlorination dosage

Free chlorine

Maximum quantity of
combine chlorine

Break point

Residual combine chlorine

Applied chlorine mg/l


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3. Disinfection: Chlorination

 Dosage: Chlorine request test


 Contact time
 pH and temperature
 Final ranges: 0.4 - 0,8 mg/l
 Shock chlorine
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DIAGRAMME COAGULANT
FLOCULANT
RAW WATER
INPUT TANK PREOXIDATION COAGULATION
FLOCCULATION

SEDIMENTATION

SILEX FILTER SLUDGE

CARBON FILTER
WASTE WATER
WASTE WATER
FINAL
CHLORINATION

OUTPUT
DRINKING WATER

DRINKING WATER
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4. Water treatment in
emergencies
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Pumping water from Water storage in an onion tank (30,000 l.) Water pre-treatment Submersible pump
the water source with flocculent

WATER TREATMENT PLANT

Residual Chlorine Chlorine & Alum

Rapid mixer Carbon filter Silex filter Flocculation tank

Pressure group

Water distribution

Bladder tanks (10,000 litres) Water distribution: Taps


to store drinking water
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4. Water treatment in emergencies


• Specialized water production

FLOCCULATION
– pre-treatment in the tank

– treatment in the sedimentation


tank in the WTP
CHLORINATION
– in the WTP (shock & residual)
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4. Water treatment in emergencies


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4. Water treatment in emergencies


• Mass water production
FLOCCULATION
– in the tank as chlorination
pre-tretament

CHLORINATION
– in the tank
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4. Water treatment in emergencies


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Thank you……….