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MOS technology

ENHANCEMENT and DEPLETION type nMOS


pMOS
Enhancement mode nMOS
transistor action
Accumulation mode
Vgs<<Vt

Depletion mode
Vgs==Vt

Inversion mode
Vgs>>Vt
nMOS fabrication
nMOS fabrication
nMOS fabrication
nMOS fabrication
nMOS fabrication
Basic Planar processes
 Silicon wafer preparation
 Epitaxial growth
 Oxidation
 Photolithography
 Diffusion
 Ion implantation
 Isolation technique
 Metalization
 Assembly processing and packaging
Epitaxial Growth
 Deposition of a
layer on a substrate Ordered,
which matches the crystalline
growth;
crystalline order of NOT
the substrate epitaxial
 Homoepitaxy
 Growth of a layer of
the same material
as the substrate
Epitaxial
 Si on Si growth:
 Heteroepitaxy
 Growth of a layer of
a different material
than the substrate
 GaAs on Si
CMOS technology
CMOS technology
 Complementary metal–oxide–
semiconductor

 Uses complementary and symmetrical


pairs of p-type and n-type MOSFETs
for logic functions

 Low static power consumption


CMOS Fabrication
• P-Well process

• N-well process

• Twin-tub process

• Silicon-on-Insulator
CMOS p-Well Process
CMOS p-Well Process
CMOS p-Well Inverter
N-Well Process
Twin Tub process
 Starts with a substrate of high
resistivity n-type material
 Create both n-well and p-well regions
 Separate optimization of n and p
transistors
TWIN TUB inverter
Silicon on Insulator
BiCMOS Technology
npn transistor

npn transistor
BiCMOS Technology
 npn transistor is formed in an n-well
 Additional p+ base region is located
in the well to form p-base region
 Buried n+ sub collector(BCCD) to
reduce resistance of n-well collector
 Standard n-well process is extended
to include further masks to add the
two layers
Ids – Vds characteristics

nMOS transistor
(1)

(2)

(3)
(4)

(5)

(6)
 Voltage along the channel varies
linearly with distance x from the source
 Due to the IR drop in the channel
 Average value of this voltage in the
channel is Vds/2
 Effective gate voltage is
Vg = Vgs - Vt
Non-Saturated Region Vds < Vgs - Vt

Charge/unit area (7)

(8)

where

(9)

38
Non-Saturated Region Vds < Vgs - Vt

(10)

(11)

(11 a)

39
Non-Saturated Region Vds < Vgs - Vt

(11 b)

therefore

(11 c)

40
Non-Saturated Region Vds < Vgs - Vt

 Co -> gate capacitance per unit


area
therefore Cg = CoWL

(11 d)
Saturated Region Vds = Vgs - Vt

(12 a)

(12 b)

(12 c)

(12 d)

42
43
44
Threshold variations
Threshold Variations
 Drain Induced Barrier Lowering
 Punch Through
 Hot carrier effects
Source-Drain resistance

Modeling the series resistance


Source-Drain resistance
The resistance of the source(drain) region

Rc ->Contact resistance

->Sheet resistance per square of


the drain source diffusion

LS,D -> Length of the source or drain region


W -> Width of the transistor
Variations in I-V characteristics
1) Velocity Saturation 2) Mobility Degradation
Narrow width effect
CMOS technology Bipolar technology

 Low static power  High power dissipation


dissipation
 High i/p impedance  Low i/p impedance
 High packing density  Low packing density
 High noise margin  Low voltage swing
logic
 Low fan-out  High fan-out
 Low o/p drive current  High o/p drive current
 Low gm  High gm
 Bidirectional  Unidirectional
 A near ideal switching
device