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# review

## 1). What is a matter?

2). What are the different postulates
contributed by John Dalton?
3). What are the different subatomic
particles?
4). Tell something about the history
of the atomic structure.
objectives
• Describe what isotope is;
• Identify the different isotope samples
and their uses
• Differentiate atoms, molecules and ions;
and
• Solve word problems.
isotopes
• Are atoms with the same atomic number but
different mass numbers.
• Since the atomic number is equal to the
number of protons and the mass number is the
sum of protons and neutrons, it can also be said
that isotopes are elements with the same
number of protons but have a different
number of neutrons.
• Hydrogen has three isotopes, namely protium
(11 H), with 1 proton and no neutrons, deuterium
(21 H) , with 1 proton and 1 neutron, and tritium
(31 H), with 1 proton and 2 neutrons.
• Oxygen has also three isotopes, namely,
oxygen-16 (168 O) with 8 protons and 8 neutrons,
oxygen-17 (178 O) with 8 protons and 9 neutrons,
and oxygen 18 (188 O) with 8 protons and 10
neutrons.
SAMPLE PROBLEM
Carbon has two stable isotopes, carbon-12 and
carbon-13. Carbon-12 is more abundant than carbon-13.
Carbon-12 contributes 98.90% mass of the whole carbon
atoms while carbon-13 contributes 1.10%. If the atomic
weight of carbon-12 is 12.0000 amu and carbon-13 has an
atomic weight of 13.0034 amu, compute for the average
atomic mass of carbon.
SOLUTION
Atomic mass = summation of percent abundance
X atomic weight of each isotope
= 98.90% (12.0000amu)+1.10% (13.0034 amu)
= 12.01 amu
EXERCISE
Element Known Atomic mass % Abundance Average
isotopes (amu) atomic mass
(amu)
14 14.0031 99.63
NITROGEN
15 15.0001 0.37
35 34.9689 75.77
CHLORINE
37 36.9659 24.23
28 27.9769 92.23
SILICON 29 28.9765 4.67
30 29.9738 3.10
ISOTOPES USES
Oxygen-16, Oxygen-17, Oxygen-18 Forensics
Determining the origin of a rock or an asteroid
Tritium (Hydrogen isotope) Making glow-in-the-dark objects
Carbon-14 Determining the age of organisms
Uranium-238 and Potassium-40 Determining the age of very old rocks
Cesium-137 Cancer treatment
Krypton-85 Fluorescent lamps and flash lamps in high-speed
photography
Measuring the thickness of plastic, rubber, paper, and
other materials.
ISOTOPES USES
Iodine- 131 Direct radioisotope therapy to treat
hyperthyroidism
Iodine- 123 Diagnostic imaging
Monitoring the function of the thyroid gland
Sodium-24 Tracing gas leaks
Tracing oil leaks from oil pipes
Studies of body electrolytes
Cobalt-60 Inspecting materials to reveal internal structures
flaws, or foreign objects (in place of x-ray)
Of all the elements, only six exist as
single atoms, namely, helium, neon,
argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. Most
matters are composed of molecules or
ions formed from atoms.
• Is a combination of at least two atoms
in a definite proportion, bound
together by covalent bonds.
Molecules can either be diatomic or
polyatomic, depending on the
number of atoms that consist them.
DIATOMIC MOLECULE contains only
two atoms. The hydrogen gas (H2) which
is made up of two hydrogen atoms, and
the carbon monoxide (CO) which
consists of one carbon atom and one
oxygen atom are considered to be a
diatomic molecules.
POLYATOMIC MOLECULE consists
of more than two atoms. Some
examples of polyatomic molecules is
the water (H2O) which contains two
hydrogen atom and one oxygen
atom.
ion
• atoms which are electrically neutral, lose and
gain electrons to become stable. In this
process, they become positively and
negatively charged particles called ions. The
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
remains the same, but the number of electrons
increases or decreases.
• For example, when sodium atom loses 1 electron,
it becomes Na+ ion.
• A magnesium atom that loses two electrons
becomes Mg+2 ion.
• Likewise, chlorine gains 1 electron and becomes
Cl- ion, and oxygen gains 2 electrons and
becomes O-2 ion.
Na Mg Mg+2 Cl
Na+ ion Cl-1 ion O atom O-2 ion
atom atom ion atom
Number
of 11 11 12 12 17 17 8 8
Protons
Number
of
11 10 12 10 17 18 8 10
Electro
ns
Net
0 +1 0 +2 0 -1 0 -2
charge
Mass number
Atomic number
23
11Na +1 Net charge
Ions can be monoatomic or
polyatomic. Na+, Mg+2, Cl- and O-2 are
considered as monatomic ions because
they contain only one atom, whereas ions
such as OH and NH4 are polyatomic
- +

## because they contain more than one atom.

Individual
activity
On a ½ sheet of paper crosswise.
Give the conventional symbol of each given
element, and answer the questions that follow.
A B C D E F G
Number of
10 10 36 28 56 10 37
e-
Number of
12 7 35 30 53 13 37
p+
Number of
12 7 45 36 74 14 48
no
Convention
al symbol
a.Which of the elements are neutral?
b.Which are negatively-charged?
c.Which are positively-charged?
evaluation
• Direction: Write the letter of the correct answer.
• 1. Which of the following describe an isotope?
A. are atoms with the same atomic number but different mass
numbers.
B. are elements with the same number of protons but have a
different number of neutrons.
C. it is the number of protons in the nucleus.
D. both A and B
• 2. Which of the following is used in determining the age of
organism?
A. Carbon-14 B. Sodium-24 C. Iodine-123 D. Krypton-85
• 3. Which of the following is used to treat
cancer?
• A. Carbon-14 B. Cesium-137
• C. Cobalt-60 D. Iodine-131
• 4-5) Differentiate atoms, molecules and an
ion. (2pts)
Complete the table
Conventiona 27
13 Al
l symbol +3

Number of 9 18 18 44 18 54
electron
Number of 9 15 44 20 55
protons
Number of 10 16 17 57 20 78
neutrons
Net charge -2
Reference:

## • Rodil, M.S. 2017. Conceptual Science and Beyond:

General Chemistry 1. Philippine: Brilliant Creations
Publishing, Inc.