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Greek word “persona” which means “to speak through”

Personality can be defined as

Personality means how those inner psychological
a person affects others characteristics that both
and how he determine and reflect how a
understands and views person responds to the
himself as well as the environment.
pattern of inner and
outer measurable traits Personality is the sum total
and the person- ways in which an individual
situation interactions reacts and interacts with

Nature vs. nurture suggests that biology (a
person‘s genes) and society (the environment
in which a person grows up) are competing for
developmental forces.
Heredity Situational

Culture Social Environment

The Nature of Personality

Personality reflects individual differences

Personality is consistent and enduring

Personality can change

Personality trait is influenced by

Inherited characteristics
The features an individual acquires from their parents or forefathers.
Physical aspects , Religion/Race of a person

Learned characteristics
Nobody learns everything by birth.
The characteristics an individual acquires by observing, practicing, and learning from others
and the surroundings is known as learned characteristics.

Perception − Result of different senses like feeling, hearing etc.

Values − Influences perception of a situation, decision making process.
Personality − Patterns of thinking, feeling, understanding and behaving.
Attitude − Positive or negative attitude like expressing one’s thought
Traits of Personality
Conscientiousness C
Extraversion E
Agreeableness A
Neuroticism N

People who like to learn new things and enjoy new experiences usually score high in
openness. Openness includes traits like being insightful and imaginative and having a wide
variety of interests
People that have a high degree of conscientiousness are reliable and prompt. Traits include
being organized, methodic, and thorough

Extraverts get their energy from interacting with others, while introverts get their energy
from within themselves. Extraversion includes the traits of energetic, talkative, and assertive.

These individuals are friendly, cooperative, and compassionate. People with low
agreeableness may be more distant. Traits include being kind, affectionate, and sympathetic.

Neuroticism is also sometimes called Emotional Stability. This dimension relates to one’s
emotional stability and degree of negative emotions. People that score high on neuroticism
often experience emotional instability and negative emotions. Traits include being moody and
Personality Theories
Traits Theory
Personality as revolving around attempts to identify and label permanent characteristics
that describe an individual’s behaviour.

Popular characteristics or traits include shyness, aggressiveness, submissiveness,

laziness, ambition, loyalty, and timidity
This distinctiveness, when they are exhibited in a large number of situations, are called
personality traits
The more consistent the characteristic and the more frequently it occurs in diverse
situations, the more important that trait is in describing the individual
Personality Attributes
Locus of Control(Julian B. Rotter in 1954): Center of control
of an individual’s code of conduct.
The degree to which people believe that they have control over the outcome of
events in their lives, as opposed to external forces beyond their control
Internals Externals
'the degree to which persons expect that a 'the degree to which persons expect that the
reinforcement or an outcome of their reinforcement or outcome is a function of
behavior is contingent on their own behavior chance, luck, or fate, is under the control of
or personal characteristics' powerful others, or is simply unpredictable
People who consider themselves as the
masters of their own fates. Lives are controlled by outside forces.
Before making any decision, internals
actively search for information, they are  Externals, on the other hand, are more
achievement driven, and want to command compliant, more willing to follow
their environment. instructions, so, they do well in structured,
internals do well on jobs that craves routine jobs
complex information processing, taking
initiative and independent action.
Machiavellianism('Dark Triad‘) practical, emotionally distant, and
believing that ends justify means. Personality trait which sees a person so focused on their
own interests they will manipulate, deceive, and exploit others to achieve their goals.
High-Machs prefer precise interactions rather than beating about the bush.
High-Machs tend to improvise; they do not necessarily abide by rules and regulations all the
High-Machs get distracted by emotional details that are irrelevant to the outcome of a
Prioritising power over love and connection, they don’t believe that humankind is by nature

It is the extent up to which people either like or dislike themselves.
self-esteem is used to describe a person's overall sense of self-worth or personal value.
Individuals with high self-esteem think that they have what it takes to succeed.
Individuals with low self-esteem are more susceptible to external distractions. So, they are
more likely to seek the approval of others and to adapt the beliefs and behaviors of those they
Self-esteem can play a significant role in your motivation and success throughout your life.
Low self-esteem may hold you back from succeeding . healthy self-esteem can help you achieve
because you navigate life with a positive, assertive attitude and believe you can accomplish your
Self-monitoring is the capability of regulating one’s behavior according to social situations.
Individuals with high self-monitoring skill easily adjust their behavior according to external,
situational factors.
Their impulsive talents allow them to present public personae which are completely different
from their private personalities.
People who are high self-monitors constantly watch other people, what they do and how they
respond to the behavior of others. Such people are hence very self-conscious and like to 'look
good' and will hence usually adapt well to differing social situations.
On the other hand, low self-monitors are generally oblivious to how other see them and hence
march to their own different drum.

However, people with low self-monitoring skills cannot cover themselves. Regardless of any
situation, they are always themselves. They have an attitude of, “what you see is what you

Risk taking
Certain types of people enjoy taking risks, while others prefer stability and are averse to any
type of risk. A risk taker is someone who risks loss or injury in the hope of gain or excitement
or accepts greater potential for loss in decisions and tolerates uncertainty
Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory

This theory is based on the belief that man is encouraged more by unforeseen forces than
the conscious and logical thought.
Freud believed that most of the things in life are not present at the conscious level but
they are present at an unconscious level.
Human personality is complex and has more than a single component


Superego Ego

Each component not only adds its own unique contribution to personality, but all three
elements interact in ways that have a powerful influence on each individual
iD is the only component of personality that is present from birth.
This aspect of personality is entirely unconscious and includes the instinctive and primitive
It is the impulsive and unconscious part of mind that seeks immediate satisfaction
According to Freud, the id is the source of all psychic energy, making it the primary
component of personality.
The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all
desires, wants, and needs
. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension.
The id is very important early in life because it ensures that an infant's needs are met

It is derived from Id and assists in dealing with the external world.
It also helps in translating the inner needs into expressions.
It deals with practical and rational thinking process.
The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality.
The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id's desires in
realistic and socially appropriate ways.
The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or
abandon impulses.
Freud compared the id to a horse and the ego to the
horse's rider. The horse provides the power and motion,
yet the rider provides the direction and guidance
The Superego
The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards
and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society our sense of right and wrong.
The superego provides guidelines for making judgments.
According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five.
The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include
those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads
to feelings of pride, value, and accomplishment
The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and
society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments, or
feelings of guilt and remorse
The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable
urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon
realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
Erikson’s Theory
This theory states that personality is groomed throughout lifetime. He presents eight distinct
stages each with two possible outcomes. Successful completion of each stage leads to a healthy
Infancy − It is the period between 0-1 years of age. In this
stage, children learn the ability to trust others depending on
their caregivers. Unsuccessful completion in this stage results
in anxiety and insecurity. developing trust

Early Childhood − It is the period between 1-3 years of age. In

this stage, children learn to be independent. If given support,
they become more confident else they become dependent over
others. greater sense of personal control.

Play Age − It is the period between 3-6 years of age. In this stage,
children assert themselves frequently. The failure leads to
development of a sense of guilt, self-doubt, and lack of initiative.
among them. Assert their power and control over the
School Age − It is the period between 6 years of age till puberty. In this stage, children
become more innovative. They feel confident and want to achieve their goals. Children
who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of
competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from
parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their abilities to be successful. competence

Adolescence − This stage is a transformation from childhood to

adulthood. Here children find their own identity and should be guided
and supported in order to help them choose the right direction
developing a sense of personal identity which will continue to influence
behavior and development for the rest of a person's life.
Young Childhood − This stage is also known as young adulthood. Here, they begin to
open up and become more intimate with others. Erikson believed it was vital that
people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Those who are
successful at this step will form relationships that are enduring and secure
Adulthood − In this stage, they focus on establishing career and settling
down with relationships that are important. Those who are successful
during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being
active in their home and community. Those who fail to attain this skill will
feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.
Mature Adulthood − In this stage, a person is old and thus in this stage the productivity
slows down. At this point in development, people look back on the events of their lives
and determine if they are happy with the life that they lived or if they regret the things
they did or didn't do
Sheldon’s Physiognomy Theory
William Sheldon. He presents personalities by classifying individuals into convenient categories
based on their body shapes.
The Endomorph is physically quite 'round', and is typified as the 'barrel of fun' person.
They tend to have:
Wide hips and narrow shoulders, which makes them rather pear-shaped.
Quite a lot of fat spread across the body, including upper arms and thighs.
They have quite slim ankles and wrists, which only serves to accentuate the fatter other
Psychologically, the endomorph is:
Love of food
Good humored
With a love of comfort
And has a need for affection
The Ectomorph is a form of opposite of the Endomorph. Physically, they tend to have:
Narrow shoulders and hips
A thin and narrow face, with a high forehead
A thin and narrow chest and abdomen
Thin legs and arms
Very little body fat
Even though they may eat as much as the endomorph, they never seem to put on weight
(much to the endomorph's chagrin). Psychologically they are:
Socially anxious
Emotionally restrained
The mesomorph is somewhere between the round endomorph and the thin
ectomorph. Physically, they have the more 'desirable' body, and have:
Large head, broad shoulders and narrow waist (wedge-shaped).
Muscular body, with strong forearms and and thighs
Very little body fat
They are generally considered as 'well-proportioned'. Psychologically, they are:
Indifferent to what others think or want
Zest for physical activity
With a desire for power/dominance
And a love of risk/chance
The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire
with the purpose of indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the
world around them and make decisions
The MBTI was constructed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers.
 It is based on the conceptual theory proposed by Carl Jung, who had speculated that
humans experience the world using four principal psychological functions
sensation, intuition, feeling, and thinking – and that one of these four functions is
dominant for a person most of the time.
The MBTI takes what is called a "structured" approach to personality assessment.
The responses to items are considered "closed" as they are interpreted according to the
theory of the test constructers in scoring.
The Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator
is a self-report inventory designed to identify a
person's personality type, strengths, and
Today, the MBTI inventory is one of the most
widely used psychological instruments in the
Taking the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator can
provide a lot of insight into your personality,
which is probably why the instrument has
become so enormously popular.
Even without taking the formal
questionnaire, you can probably immediately
recognize some of these tendencies in yourself.
Extraversion (E) - Introversion (I)
Extraverts (also often spelled extroverts) are "outward-turning" and tend to be action-oriented,
enjoy more frequent social interaction, and feel energized after spending time with other
people. Introverts are "inward-turning" and tend to be thought-oriented, enjoy deep and
meaningful social interactions, and feel recharged after spending time alone. We all exhibit
extraversion and introversion to some degree, but most of us tend have an overall preference
for one or the other.

Sensing (S) - Intuition (N)

This scale involves looking at how people gather information from the world around them. Just
like with extraversion and introversion, all people spend some time sensing and intuiting
depending on the situation. According to the MBTI, people tend be dominant in one area or the
other. People who prefer sensing tend to pay a great deal of attention to reality, particularly to
what they can learn from their own senses. They tend to focus on facts and details and enjoy
getting hands-on experience. Those who prefer intuition pay more attention to things like
patterns and impressions. They enjoy thinking about possibilities, imagining the future, and
abstract theories.

Thinking (T) - Feeling (F)

This scale focuses on how people make decisions based on the information that they gathered
from their sensing or intuition functions. People who prefer thinking place a greater emphasis
on facts and objective data. They tend to be consistent, logical, and impersonal when weighing a
decision. Those to prefer feeling are more likely to consider people and emotions when arriving
at a conclusion
Judging (J) - Perceiving (P)
The final scale involves how people tend to deal with the outside world. Those who lean
toward judging prefer structure and firm decisions. People who lean toward perceiving are
more open, flexible, and adaptable. These two tendencies interact with the other scales.
Remember, all people at least spend some time extroverting. The judging-perceiving scale
helps describe whether you extravert when you are taking in new information (sensing and
intuiting) or when you are making decisions (thinking and feeling).

MBTI is not really a "test.“

There are no right or wrong answers and one type is not better than any other type.
The purpose of the indicator is not to evaluate mental health or offer any type of diagnosis.
According to the Myers & Briggs Foundation, the MBTI meets accepted standards of
reliability and validity.
Because the Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicator is relatively easy to use, it has become
one of the most popular psychological instruments currently in use today. Approximately
two million U.S. adults complete the inventory each year
The Johari window is a technique that helps people better understand their
relationship with themselves and others.
 It was created by psychologists Joseph Luft (1916–2014) and Harrington Ingham (1916–1995)
in 1955, and is used primarily in self-help groups and corporate settings.
It is necessary to improve self-awareness and personal development among individuals when
they are in a group.
The ‘Johari’ window model is a convenient method used to achieve this task of understanding
and enhancing communication between the members in a group, training self-awareness,
personal development, improving communications, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics,
team development and inter-group relationships.
This model is based on two ideas- trust can be acquired by revealing information about you
to others and learning yourselves from their feedbacks.
In the exercise, subjects pick a number of adjectives from a list, choosing ones they feel
describe their own personality.
 The subject's peers then get the same list, and each picks an equal number of adjectives that
describe the subject.
These adjectives are then inserted into a two-by-two grid of four cells.
The method of conveying and accepting feedback is interpreted in this model. A Johari is
represented as a common window with four panes.
 Two of these panes represent self and the other two represent the part unknown to self but
to others.
The information transfers from one pane to the other as the result of mutual trust which can
be achieved through socializing and the feedback got from other members of the group.
because when we work in this area with others we are at our most effective and
productive, and the group is at its most productive too.
The open free area, or 'the arena', can be seen as the space where good
communications and cooperation occur, free from distractions, mistrust, confusion,
conflict and misunderstanding.
Hidden, or Façade
Adjectives selected by the subject, but not by any of their peers, go in this quadrant.
These are things the peers are either unaware of, or that are untrue but for the
subject's claim.
This hidden or avoided self represents information, feelings, etc, anything that a
person knows about him/self, but which is not revealed or is kept hidden from others.
The hidden area could also include sensitivities, fears, hidden agendas, manipulative
intentions, secrets - anything that a person knows but does not reveal, for whatever
It's natural for very personal and private information and feelings to remain hidden,
indeed, certain information, feelings and experiences have no bearing on work, and
so can and should remain hidden.
Typically, a lot of hidden information is not very personal, it is work- or performance-
related, and so is better positioned in the open area.
Relevant hidden information and feelings, etc, should be moved into the open area
through the process of 'disclosure'.
The aim should be to disclose and expose relevant information and feelings - hence
the Johari Window terminology 'self-disclosure' and 'exposure process', thereby
increasing the open area.
Blind Spot
Adjectives not selected by subjects, but only by their peers go here. These
represent what others perceive but the subject does not. By seeking or soliciting
feedback from others, the aim should be to reduce this area and thereby to increase the
open area ie, to increase self-awareness.
This blind area is not an effective or productive space for individuals or groups.
This blind area could also be referred to as ignorance about oneself, or issues in which one
is deluded.
A blind area could also include issues that others are deliberately withholding from a
Group members and managers can take some responsibility for helping an individual to
reduce their blind area - in turn increasing the open area - by giving sensitive feedback and
encouraging disclosure. Managers should promote a climate of non-judgemental feedback,
and group response to individual disclosure, which reduces fear and therefore encourages
both processes to happen.
Adjectives that neither subject nor peers selected go here. They represent subject's
behaviors or motives that no one participating recognizes—either because they do
not apply or because of collective ignorance of these traits.
These unknown issues take a variety of forms: they can be feelings, behaviours, attitudes,
capabilities, aptitudes, which can be quite close to the surface, and which can be positive
and useful, or they can be deeper aspects of a person's personality, influencing his/her
behaviour to various degrees.
Large unknown areas would typically be expected in younger people, and people who lack
The Johari Window 'panes' can be
The Johari Window Model changed in size to reflect the
relevant proportions of each type
of 'knowledge' of/about a
particular person in a given group
or team situation.

The Johari Window processes of

serious feedback solicitation,
disclosure, and striving to uncover
one's unknown area relate to
Maslow's 'self-actualization' ideas
contained in the Hierarchy of

Johari is a very elegant and potent

model, and as with other powerful
ideas, simply helping people to
understand is the most effective
way to optimise the value to people
Johari Adjectives spontaneous
56 sympathetic
bold idealistic
brave independent
calm ingenious
caring intelligent
cheerful introverted
clever kind
complex knowledgeable
confident logical
dependable loving
dignified mature
empathetic modest
energetic nervous
Open/self-area or arena – Here the Hidden area or façade – Information that is
information about the person his attitudes, known to you but will be kept unknown from
behaviour, emotions, feelings, skills and views others.
will be known by the person as well as by This can be any personal information which
others. you feel reluctant to reveal.
This is mainly the area where all the This includes feelings, past experiences, fears,
communications occur and the larger the secrets etc.
arena becomes the more effectual and we keep some of our feelings and information
dynamic the relationship will be. as private as it affects the relationships and
Feedback solicitation’ is a process which occurs thus the hidden area must be reduced by
by understanding and listening to the feedback moving the information to the open areas.
from another person. Through this way the
Unknown area – The Information which are
open area can be increased horizontally
unaware to yourselves as well as others.
decreasing the blind spot
This includes the information, feelings,
capabilities, talents etc.
This can be due to traumatic past experiences
Blind self or blind spot – Information about or events which can be unknown for a lifetime.
yourselves that others know in a group but The person will be unaware till he discovers his
you will be unaware of it. hidden qualities and capabilities or through
Others may interpret yourselves differently observation of others.
than you expect. Open communication is also an effective way
The blind spot is reduced for an efficient to decrease the unknown area and thus to
communication through seeking feedback communicate effectively.
from others
new team member or member within a new

established team member

The open free region is small
because others know little about the
new person.

Similarly the blind area is small

The open free region is large because others know a
because others know little about the
lot about the person that the person also knows.
new person.
Through the processes of disclosure and receiving
The hidden or avoided issues and
feedback the open area has expanded and at the
feelings are a relatively large area.
same time reduced the sizes of the hidden, blind and
unknown areas.
In this particular example the
unknown area is the largest, which
It's helpful to compare the Johari Window model to
might be because the person is
other four-quadrant behavioural models, notably
young, or lacking in self-knowledge
Bruce Tuckman's Forming, Storming Norming
or belief.
Performing team development model; also to a lesser
but nonetheless interesting extent, The Hersey-
Blanchard Situational Leadership team development
and management styles model (See both here). The
common principle is that as the team matures and
communications improve, so performance improves
too, as less energy is spent on internal issues and
clarifying understanding, and more effort is devoted
to external aims and productive output.