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General

Psychology
Lara Jessa F. Macaraeg
What is Psychology?
• The scientific study of behavior and
mental process.
Wave one: Introspection
• The beginning of scientific psychology 1879
• Wilhelm Wundth
• Set up the 1st psychological laboratory in an apartment
near the university at Leipzig, Germany.
• He trained his subjects through INTROSPECTION- subject
where ask to record accurately their cognitive reactions
to simple stimuli to examine the basic cognitive
structures.
• STRUCTURALISM: the minds operates by combining
subjective emotions and objective sensations
• In 1890, Williams James published The Principle of
Psychology, the 1st science textbook.
• He examined how structures Wundth identified function
in our daily lives (FUNCTIONALISM)
Wave one: introspection
• Mary Whiton Calkins
• Studied with William James
• President of American Psychological Association
• Margaret Floy Washburn
• 1st woman to earn a Ph.D in psychology
• G. Stanley Hall
• Study of child development
• 1st president of American Psychological Association
Wave two: gestalt psychology
• Max Wertheimer
• Argued against dividing human thought and behaviour
into discrete structures.
• Examine person’s total experience because the way we
experience the world is more than just accumulation
of various perceptual experience.

• “ whole experience is often more than just the sum of


the parts of the experience. ”
Wave three: psychoanalysis
• Sigmund Freud
• Unconscious mind
• Part of our mind over which we do not have conscious
control that determines, in part, how we think and
behave
• Hidden part of ourselves
• Criticized for being unscientific and creating unverifiable
theories
Wave four: behaviourism
• John Watson
• Pioneered conditioning experiment of Ivan Pavlov
• “for Psychology to be considered as a science, it must
limit itself to observable phenomena, not
unobservable concepts like the unconscious mind.”
Wave four: behaviourism
• Psychologist should look at only behaviour and causes of
behaviour
• Stimulus (environmental events)
• Responses (Physical reaction)
• BF Skinner
• Reinforcement- environmental stimuli that either
encourage or discourage certain responses
Wave five: multiple perspective
– Eclectic
• Drawing from multiple perspective
• There is no one way of explaining human thought and
behaviour
Contemporary perspective

• Psychological Perspective
1. Humanist Perspective
2. Psychoanalytic Perspective
3. Biopsychology or Neuroscience Perspective
4. Evolutionary or Darwinian Perspective
5. Behavioural Perspective
6. Cognitive Perspective
7. Socio-cultural Perspective
Humanist perspective

• Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers


• Stressed individual choice and free will
• Contrasts deterministic behaviourist, that all behaviour are
caused by past conditioning
• Humanist believe that we choose most of our behaviours and
these choices are guided by physiological, emotional, or
spiritual needs
Biopsychology perspective

• Explain human thought and behaviour strictly in terms of


biological processes.
• Human cognition and reactions might causes by effects of
our genes, hormones and neurotransmitters.
• Genes inherited from parents
Evolutionary perspective

• A.k.a sociobiologist
• Examine human thought and actions in terms of
natural selection (Charles Darwin)
• Advantageous psychological traits that ensures survival
would be passed down from parents to the next generation
• Is similar to Biopsychology Perspective
Behavioural perspective

• Rewards and punishment


• Observable behaviour
• Conditioning
Cognitive perspective

• Examine thought and behaviour in terms of how we


interpret, process and remember environmental events
• How we use to view the world are important to understand
why we think and behave the way we do.
• Jean Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory
• How our cognitions develops in stages as we mature
Sociocultural perspective

• Examine thought and behaviour in terms of how our thoughts


and behaviour vary from people living in other cultures.
• The influence of culture has on the way we think and act.
Chapter 2: Methods
Psychology is a science therefore, it is based on
research.
Hindsight Bias- “they think that they knew it all along”

Two kinds of research


Applied research- has practical implications
Basic Research- only explore questions
• Hypothesis- Educated guess
• Variables- things that can vary among the participants in the
research
• Independent Variable-
• Variable that will produce change in the dependent
variable
• Manipulated
• Dependent Variable
• Effect of independent variable
• Operational Definition
• Researchers own definition of his work
• Explain how you will measure your variables
Validity and reliability
• Good research is both valid and reliable.
• Validity
• Research is valid when it measures what the researcher
set out to measure.
• Accurateness
• Reliability
• When the result can be replicated.
• Consistency, repeatability
method
• Participants or subjects- the individuals on which the
researcher will be conducted
• Sampling- the process by which participants are selected
• Sample- representative of the population
• Population- anyone or anything that could possibly be
selected to be in the sample
• Random selection- every member of the society has an equal
chance of being selected.
• FIY: selecting sample randomly maximizes the chance that
it will represent the population from which it was drawn
and allows researchers to draw generalizations about the
population based on their findings about their samples.
• The larger the sample, the more likely it is o represent the
population.
• Downside of a large sample
• Time, money, effort
• Stratified Sampling- allows the researcher to ensure that the
sample represents the population on some criteria.
Sampling method
MIDTERM
Research
methodology
midterm
Differences between the two general
classifications of Research:
• QUANTITATIVE- collection of numerical data
• statistical analysis, control research conditions
• examples: experimental studies, extent of knowledge, effectiveness
• QUALITATIVE - collection of narrative data
• undertaken to describe natural phenomena without controlling or
manipulating variables
• examples: historical research, researches regarding beliefs and
practices, experiences
TYPES OF QUANTITATIVE RESERACH
• Descriptive - exploration and description of a phenomena in real life
situations
• may use survey method
• common methods used are questionnaire, interview, observation
• Correlation- examines linear relations between 2 or more variables
• determines the type ( + or - )/DIRECTION and Degree of relationship
• Quasi- experimental- examines cause and effect
• done in partially controlled situations
• Quasi experiment may or may not have control groups and random
assignment may or may not be made.
• True Experimental- examines cause and effect
• done in highly controlled conditions
• independent variable is manipulated
• True experiment has three features:
• subjects are randomly assigned
• experimental variable is manipulated
• With at least 2 groups-experimental and control.
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
• Phenomenologic – experiences
• Grounded theory – develop a theory; individual behaviour
• Ethnographic – culture
• Historical – past events
TYPES OF QUANTITATIVE RESERACH
• Descriptive - exploration and description of a phenomena in real life
situations
• may use survey method
• common methods used are questionnaire, interview, observation
• Correlation- examines linear relations between 2 or more variables
• determines the type ( + or - )/DIRECTION and Degree of relationship
Correlational method
• Assessing the relationship between two variables/ factors
• Positive Correlation- as one variables increases/decreases,
so does the other

• Negative correlation- two variable goes in opposite direction

• No correlation- no relationship at all


Correlational method
• Advantage:
• Allows an investigator to study the associations
of naturally occurring variables that cannot be
manipulated or induced. (age, gender, race,
ethnicity)
• Provide information on the direction and
strength.
• Direction (How variable are related: positively,
negatively)
• Strength: degree of accuracy with which you
can predict the value of one variable by
knowing the value of the other variable.
Correlational Method
• Disadvantage:
• do not provide cause and effect
relationship.
• Quasi- experimental- examines cause and effect
• done in partially controlled situations
• Quasi experiment may or may not have control groups
and random assignment may or may not be made.
• True Experimental- examines cause and effect
• done in highly controlled conditions
• independent variable is manipulated
True experiment has three features:
• subjects are randomly assigned
• experimental variable is manipulated
• With at least 2 groups-experimental and control.
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
• Phenomenologic – experiences
• Grounded theory – develop a theory; individual behaviour
• Ethnographic – culture
• Historical – past events
Experimental method
• Laboratory Experiments
• Highly controlled environment
• Field Experiments
• Conducted out in the world
• More realistic observation than in laboratory experiments
• Provide causal relationship (cause and effect)
Naturalistic observation
• Observe the participants in their natural habitats
without interacting with them at all.
• Provide realistic and rich picture of the participant’s
behaviour
Case studies
• Provide a full, detailed, picture of one participant or
a small group of participants.
Statistics
• Descriptive Statistics- simple describe a set of data
• Frequency distribution- provides you summarize
data.
-How many students had dogs, cats, zebras, so
on
Respondents Number of Pets
Lara 3
Jessa 2
Flora 5
Phillip 7
Lloyd 9
Statistics
• Central Tendency
• Mark the center of the distribution
• Mean
• Median
• Mode
Statistics
• Mean
• Average of all the scores in a distribution
• Add up all the scores in the distribution and divide by the
number of scores.

• 5, 3, 2, 3, 4
• total: 17/5= 3.4
Mean= 3.4
Statistics
• Median
• Central score in the distribution
• Write the scores down in ascending or descending order, and
then, if there are an odd number of scores, find the middle
one.

ODD EVEN
• 5, 3, 2, 3, 4 2, 3, 3, 4, 5, 6
• 2, 3, 3, 4, 5 3+4=7 7/2
Median= 3 Median= 3.5
Statistics
• Mode
• The most frequent score in the distribution
Bimodal
5, 3, 2, 3, 4 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 6
Mode= 3 Mode= 3 and 4
Inferential Statistics
• Descriptive statistics provide a way to summarize
information about the sample studied, the purpose of
inferential statistics is to determine whether or not
findings can be applied to the larger population from
which the sample was selected
effects of sugar consumption on short-
term memory
• You randomly assigned your 50 subjects to either a control group that was
given a sugarfree lollipop or to the experimental group that was given a
seemingly identical lollipop that contained sugar. You then tested the
participants’ ability to recall 15 one-syllable nouns. If the experimental
group remembered an average of 7 words and the control group remembered
an average of 6.9 words, would you be comfortable concluding that sugar
does, in fact, enhance short-term memory? Your gut reaction is probably to
say that the 0.1 difference in the example is too small to allow us to draw
such a conclusion. What if the experimental group consisted of just one
person who recalled all 15 words while the control group contained one
person who remembered only 5 words? You would probably be similarly
reluctant to draw any conclusions even given this enormous difference in the
number of words recalled due to the tiny sample size.
The purpose of inferential statistics is to
help psychologists decide when their
findings can be applied to the larger
population.
inferential statistical tests
• t-tests, chi square tests, and ANOVAs
• They all take into account both the magnitude of the
difference found and the size of the sample
• The smaller the p value, the more significant the
results. a p value of .05 is the cutoff for statistically
significant results.=means that a 5 percent chance exists
that the results occurred by chance. A p value can never
equal 0 because we can never be 100 percent certain
that results did not happen due to chance.
APA ETHICAL GUIDELINES
• ethics board or institutional review board (IRB) at
the institution. The IRB reviews research proposals for
ethical violations and/or procedural errors. This
board ultimately gives researchers permission to go
ahead with the research or requires them to revise
their procedures.
Animal Research
how animals are treated in laboratory experiments?
• They must have a clear scientific purpose.
• The research must answer a specific, important scientific
question.
• Animals chosen must be best-suited to answer the question at
hand.
• They must care for and house animals in a humane way.
• They must acquire animal subjects legally.
• Animals must be purchased from accredited companies. If wild
animals must be used, they need to be trapped in a humane
manner.
• They must design experimental procedures that employ the
Human Research
• No coercion—Participation should be voluntary.
• Informed consent—Participants must know that
they are involved in research and give their
consent. If the participants are deceived in any
way about the nature of the study, the
deception must not be so extreme as to
invalidate the informed consent. The research
the participants thought they were consenting
to must be similar enough to the actual study to
give the informed consent meaning. Also,
researchers must be very careful about the
trauma deception may cause.
Human research
• Risk—Participants cannot be placed at
significant mental or physical risk. Typically,
it is considered permissible for participants
to experience temporary discomfort or
stress but activities that might cause
someone long-term mental or physical harm
must be avoided. This clause requires
interpretation by the review board. Some
institutions might allow a level of risk other
boards might not allow.
Human research
• Debriefing—After the study, participants should be told
the purpose of the study and provided with ways to
contact the researchers about the results. When
research involves deception, it is particularly
important to conduct a thorough debriefing
Articles: 5 to be submitted October 9,
2019 Wednesday
2010
Quiz on October
2, 2019
Determinants of
behavior
October 4, 2019
Failure of a child in school may be
explained:
• The child is dull and therefore incapable of learning
anything, which is difficult.

• The child is bright enough, but uninterested, or lazy,


or poorly trained.
Nature vs. nurture
• It refers to the native equipment , to the inborn
capacity.
HEREDITY

• Lack of development on one’s inborn abilities through


environment factors.
ENVIRONMENT
HEREDITY
• Totality of influences, biologically transmitted from
parents to the offspring that determines the ways in
which an individual will make use of his environment.
environment
• Sum total of external conditions and factors
potentially capable of influencing an organism.
Impact of both determinants
Pervasive influence of
Pervasive influence of heredity environment
• Wild Children- reared by
• Animals- selecting animals without any
breeding (particular group human presence
of organism is continuously
mated with each other)
leads after some
generations to two quite
distinct groups of
organism.
Misconception: hereditary-
environment relationship
• Exclusive Operations- psychological characteristics can
be separated into those that are inherited and those
that are acquired.

• Additive Operations- behavioral characteristics are the


outcome of the sum total od hereditary and
environmental influences.
How does hereditary function?
• Biological Transmission- transmitted at conception
when the female egg is fertilized by male sperm cell.
• The union of egg and the sperm within the mother’s
body produces new cell called zygote.
• In the nucleus of zygote, the hereditary materials of
both the mother and the father are combined.
Hereditary materials:
• Chromosomes- thread-like structures within the
nucleus of each cell in the body. They carry the
hereditary units transmitted from parents to the
offspring.

• Human cell- 46 chromosomes arranged in pairs


23 form father’s sperm and 23 from mother’s ovum.

• Maid up of DNA and protein.


Hereditary materials:
• Genes- hereditary unit within the chromosomes
occurring in pairs- one gene from the sperm
chromosomes and one from ovum chromosomes.

• DNA- where the genetic information is coded.


Gene Mapping
Biotechnology
• Process that involves determining what segment of the
DNA is carrying a particular gene influencing certain
traits

• Studies the implications of this gene mapping


(preventing anomalies, improving the genetic make-
up, etc.)
General principle of hereditary
• Principle of Consistency- like begets like. Cats have
kittens, dogs have puppies and human have babies.

• Principle of Variability- like begets almost like. A


child is like both parents but nit exactly like neither.
General principle of hereditary
• Chance principle- some hereditary factors cannot be
predetermined. Example the gender of the child.

• Principle of Dominance/ Recessiveness


Hereditary
determines what a
person can do.
Environment
determines what a
person does within
the limits imposed by
hereditary