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 The models of communication are
designed to help speakers improve
their manner of communication.
According to Wiseman and
Baker(1967) there are three
purposes of these models.
1.To describe the process of
2.To show visual relationships
3.To correct communication breakdown
He further stated that these
communication models are
classified according to its TYPE
 On the other hand, Smith(1962) cited four
general types which he considered as
contemporary models.
1.Iconic or physical models
4.Symbolic models
 Iconic or Physical Models
Are physical representation of objects or
processes. Examples are the Igorot dolls which
serve s replica of the people they represent. Aside
from dolls as examples of iconic models, we also
considered pictures from books and magazines,
and paintings and sculptures from art galleries.
 Verbal –Pictorial Models
Are used to clarify concepts and processes.
The verbal portion is supplemented by a pictorial
representation of the words used by the speaker.
It is further believed that this model can make
the process being described more meaningful
and easier to understand.
 Analogues
Analogues are extension of the verbal-pictorial model
which substitute one characteristic of an object for another
as in the maps of some countries where different colors are
used to represent the different types of roads and terrains.
Graphics and chart can also be considered as a common
type of pictorial analogues because they represent
properties in a different forms.
 Symbolic models
Symbolic models are formed by substituting
symbols for the objects they represent. This is
best observed in Mathematics.
 The second classification to its purpose. These
models of communication are presented for
instructional purpose. They illustrate the
dynamics of the speaking situation while
examining the visual relationships of the
variables involved in the process. As additional
purpose of these models is to describe the
process as in the results of observation and
research. The process of communication can
easily be understood by studying the idealized
models. Among them are the SMCR or Berlo’s
model, Schram’s model, Wiseman and Baker
communication model and the Aristotle model.
These models, however, are presented to
provide students off effective speaking the
absolute understanding of intrapersonal and
interpersonal communication.