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Diagonalization

Linear Algebra
Section Objectives
• At the end of the lesson, the student must be able to:
• Find a basis for Rn that consists of eigenvectors of an n × n matrix A;
and
• Find (if possible) a nonsingular matrix P for a matrix A such that P−1AP
is diagonal.
The Matrix Diagonalization Problem
This is an example of similarity transformation.
A → P−1AP
This is important because it preserves many properties of the
matrix A. For example, if we let B = P−1AP, then A and B have the
same determinant since
det(B) = det(P−1AP) = det(P−1)det(A)det(P)
1
= det 𝐴 det 𝑃 = det 𝐴
det 𝑃
The Matrix Diagonalization Problem
In general, any property that is preserved by a similarity
transformation is called a similarity invariant and is said to be
invariant under similarity. Table 1 lists the most important
similarity invariants.
The Matrix Diagonalization Problem
Table 1 Similarity Invariants
Property Description
Determinant A and P−1AP have the same determinant.
Invertibility A is invertible if and only if P−1AP is invertible.
Rank A and P−1AP have the same rank.
Nullity A and P−1AP have the same nullity.
Trace A and P−1AP have the same trace.
Characteristic polynomial A and P−1AP have the same characteristic polynomial.
Eigenvalues A and P−1AP have the same eigenvalues.
Eigenspace dimension If λ is an eigenvalue of A (and hence of P−1AP) then the
eigenspace of A corresponding to λ and the eigenspace of
P−1AP corresponding to λ have the same dimension.
DEFINITION 1
If A and B are square matrices, then we say that B is similar to A if
there is an invertible matrix P such that B = P−1AP.
DEFINITION 2
A square matrix A is said to be diagonalizable if it is similar to
some diagonal matrix; that is, if there exists an invertible matrix P
such that P−1AP is diagonal. In this case the matrix P is said to
diagonalize A.
THEOREM 5.2.1
If A is an n × n matrix, the following statements are equivalent.
(a) A is diagonalizable.
(b) A has n linearly independent eigenvectors.
THEOREM 5.2.2
(a) If λ1, λ2, …, λk are distinct eigenvalues of a matrix A, and if v1,
v2, …, vk are corresponding eigenvectors, then {v1, v2, …, vk} is a
linearly independent set.
(b) An n × n matrix with n distinct eigenvalues is diagonalizable.
A Procedure for Diagonalizing an n × n Matrix
Step 1. Determine first whether the matrix is actually diagonalizable
by searching for n linearly independent eigenvectors. One way to do
this is to find a basis for each eigenspace and count the total number
of vectors obtained. If there is a total of n vectors, then the matrix is
diagonalizable, and if the total is less than n, then it is not.
Step 2. If you ascertained that the matrix is diagonalizable, then form
the matrix P = [p1 p2 … pn] whose column vectors are the n basis
vectors you obtained in Step 1.
Step 3. P−1AP will be a diagonal matrix whose successive diagonal
entries are the eigenvalues λ1, λ2, …, λn that correspond to the
successive columns of P.
Examples
1/305 Finding a Matrix P That Diagonalizes a Matrix A
Find a matrix P that diagonalizes
0 0 −2
𝐴= 1 2 1
1 0 3
Solution In Example 7 of the preceding section we found the
characteristic equation of A to be

(λ − 1)(λ − 2)2 = 0
Examples
1/305 Finding a Matrix P That Diagonalizes a Matrix A
Solution
and we found the following bases for the eigenspaces:
−1 0 −2
λ = 2: 𝐩1 = 0 , 𝐩2 = 1 ; λ = 1: 𝐩3 = 1
1 0 1
There are three basis vectors in total, so the matrix
−1 0 −2
𝑃= 0 1 1
1 0 1
diagonalizes A.
Examples
1/305 Finding a Matrix P That Diagonalizes a Matrix A
Solution
As a check, you should verify that

1 0 2 0 0 2 −1 0 −2 2 0 0
𝑃−1 𝐴𝑃 = 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 1 = 0 2 0
−1 0 −1 1 0 3 1 0 1 0 0 1
Examples
1/305 Finding a Matrix P That Diagonalizes a Matrix A
Solution
In general, there is no preferred order for the columns of P. Since
the ith diagonal of P−1AP is an eigenvalue for the ith column
vector of P, changing the order of the columns of P just changes
the order of the eigenvalues on the diagonal P−1AP. Thus, had we
written
−1 −2 0
𝑃= 0 1 1
1 1 0
Examples
1/305 Finding a Matrix P That Diagonalizes a Matrix A
Solution
in the preceding example, we would have obtained

2 0 0
𝑃−1 𝐴𝑃 = 0 1 0
0 0 2
Examples
2/306 A Matrix That Is Not Diagonalizable
Show that the following matrix is not diagonalizable:
1 0 0
𝐴= 1 2 0
−3 5 2

Solution The characteristic polynomial of A is


λ−1 0 0
2
det λ𝐼 − 𝐴 = −1 λ − 2 0 = λ−1 λ−2
3 −5 λ − 2
Examples
2/306 A Matrix That Is Not Diagonalizable
Solution
so the characteristic equation is
(λ − 1)(λ − 2)2 = 0
and the distinct eigenvalues of A are λ = 1 and λ = 2. We leave it for
you to show that the bases for the eigenspaces are
1Τ8 0
λ = 1: 𝐩1 = −1Τ8 ; λ = 2: 𝐩2 = 0
1 1
Since A is 3 × 3 matrix and there are only two basis vectors in total, A
is not diagonalizable.
Examples
2/306 A Matrix That Is Not Diagonalizable
Alternative Solution Finding the dimensions of the eigenspaces
For this example, the eigenspace corresponding to λ = 1 is the
solution space of the system
0 0 0 𝑥1 0
−1 −1 0 𝑥2 = 0
3 −5 −1 𝑥3 0
Since the coefficient matrix has rank 2 (verify), the nullity of this
matrix is 1 by Theorem 4.8.2, and hence the eigenspacee
corresponding to λ = 1 is one-dimensional.
Examples
2/306 A Matrix That Is Not Diagonalizable
Alternative Solution Finding the dimensions of the eigenspaces
The eigenspace corresponding to λ = 2 is the solution space of the
system
1 0 0 𝑥1 0
−1 0 0 𝑥2 = 0
3 −5 0 𝑥3 0
This coefficient matrix also has rank 2 and nullity 1 (verify), so the
eigenspace corresponding to λ = 2 is also one-dimensional. Since
the eigenspaces produce a total of two basis vectors, and since
three are needed, the matrix A is not diagonalizable.
Examples
3/307 Recognizing Diagonalizability
We saw in Example 3 of the preceding section that

0 1 0
𝐴= 0 0 1
4 −17 8

has three distinct eigenvalues: λ = 4, λ = 2 + √3, and λ = 2 − √3.


Examples
3/307 Recognizing Diagonalizability
Therefore, A is diagonalizable and

4 0 0
𝑃−1 𝐴𝑃 = 0 2+ 3 0
0 0 2− 3

for some invertible matrix P. If needed, the matrix P can be found


using the method shown in Example 1 of this section.
Examples
4/307 Diagonalizability of Triangular Matrices
From Theorem 5.1.2, the eigenvalues of a triangular matrix are
the entries on its main diagonal. Thus, a triangular matrix with
distinct entries on the main diagonal is diagonalizable. For
example,
−1 2 4 0
0 3 1 7
𝐴=
0 0 5 8
0 0 0 −2
is a diagonalizable matrix with eigenvalues λ1 = −1, λ2 = 3, λ3 = 5,
λ4 = −2.
THEOREM 5.2.3
If k is a positive integer, λ is an eigenvalue of a matrix A, and x is a
corresponding eigenvector, then λk is an eigenvalue of Ak and x is
a corresponding eigenvector.

Note that diagonalizability is not a requirement in Theorem 5.2.3.


Examples
5/307 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Matrix Powers
In Example 2 we found the eigenvalues and corresponding
eigenvectors of the matrix
1 0 0
𝐴= 1 2 0
−3 5 2
Do the same for A7.
Solution We know from Example 2 that the eigenvalues of A are λ = 1
and λ = 2, so the eigenvalues of A7 are λ = 17 = 1 and λ = 27 = 128. The
eigenvectors p1 and p2 obtained in Example 1 corresponding to the
eigenvalues λ = 1 and λ = 2 of A are also the eigenvectors
corresponding to the eigenvalues λ = 1 and λ = 128 of A7.
Computing Powers of a Matrix
λ1𝑘 0 ⋯ 0
𝐴𝑘 = 𝑃𝐷 𝑘 𝑃−1 =𝑃 0 λ𝑘2 ⋯ 0 𝑃−1 (3)
⋮ ⋮ ⋮
0 0 ⋯ λ𝑘𝑛

Formula (3) reveals that raising a diagonalizable matrix A to a


positive integer power has the effect of raising its eigenvalues to
that power.
Examples
6/308 Powers of a Matrix
Use (3) to find A13, where
0 0 −2
𝐴= 1 2 1
1 0 3

Solution We showed in Example 1 that the matrix A is


diagonalized by
−1 0 −2
𝑃= 0 1 1
1 0 1
Examples
6/308 Powers of a Matrix
Solution
and that

2 0 0
𝐷 = 𝑃−1 𝐴𝑃 = 0 2 0
0 0 1
Examples
6/308 Powers of a Matrix
Solution
Thus, it follows from (3) that

−1 0 −2 213 0 0 1 0 2
𝐴13 = 𝑃𝐷13 𝑃−1 = 0 1 1 0 213 0 1 1 1 (4)
1 0 1 0 0 113 −1 0 −1
−8190 0 −16382
= 8191 8192 8191
8191 0 16383
Examples
6/308 Powers of a Matrix
Remark With the method in the preceding example, most of the
work is in diagonalizing A. Once that work is done, it can be used
to compute any power of A. Thus, to compute A1000 we need only
change the exponents from 13 to 1000 in (4).
Examples
7/309 The Converse of Theorem 5.2.2(b) Is False
Consider the matrices
1 0 0 1 1 0
𝐼 = 0 1 0 and 𝐽 = 0 1 1
0 0 1 0 0 1
It follows from Theorem 5.1.2 that both of these matrices have
only one distinct eigenvalues, namely λ = 1, and hence only one
eigenspace. We leave it as an exercise for you to solve the
characteristic equations
(λI − I)x = 0 and (λI − J)x = 0
Examples
7/309 The Converse of Theorem 5.2.2(b) Is False
with λ = 1 and show that for I the eigenspace is three-dimensional
(all of R3) and for J it is one-dimensional, consisting of all scalar
multiples of
1
𝐱= 0
0
This shows that the converse of Theorem 5.2.2(b) is false, since
we have produced two 3 × 3 matrices with fewer than three
distinct eigenvalues, one of which is diagonalizable and the other
of which is not.
THEOREM 5.2.4
Geometric and Algebraic Multiplicity

If λ0 is an eigenvalue of an n × n matrix A, then the dimension of


the eigenspace corresponding to λ0 is called the geometric
multiplicity of λ0, and the number of times that λ − λ0 appears as
a factor in the characteristic polynomial of A is called the
algebraic multiplicity of λ0.
THEOREM 5.2.4
Geometric and Algebraic Multiplicity
If A is a square matrix, then:
(a) For every eigenvalue of A, the geometric multiplicity is less
than or equal to the algebraic multiplicity.
(b) A is diagonalizable if and only if the geometric multiplicity of
every eigenvalue is equal to the algebraic multiplicity.
Examples
1/311 Show that A and B are not similar matrices.

1 1 1 0
𝐴= ,𝐵 =
3 2 3 −2

5/311 Find a matrix P that diagonalizes A, and check your work by


computing P−1AP (answer is not unique).

1 0
𝐴=
6 −1
Examples
7/311 Find a matrix P that diagonalizes A, and check your work by
computing P−1AP (answer is not unique).

2 0 −2
𝐴= 0 3 0
0 0 3
Examples
9/311 Let
4 0 1
𝐴= 2 3 2
1 0 4
(a) Find the eigenvalues of A.
(b) For each eigenvalue λ, find the rank of the matrix λI − A.
(c) Is A diagonalizable? Justify your conclusion.
Examples
11/311 Find the geometric and algebraic multiplicity of each
eigenvalue of the matrix A, and determine whether A is
diagonalizable. If A is diagonalizable, then find a matrix P that
diagonalizes A, and find P−1AP.

−1 4 −2
𝐴 = −3 4 0
−3 1 3
Examples
13/311 Find the geometric and algebraic multiplicity of each
eigenvalue of the matrix A, and determine whether A is
diagonalizable. If A is diagonalizable, then find a matrix P that
diagonalizes A, and find P−1AP.

0 0 0
𝐴= 0 0 0
3 0 1
Examples
15/311 The characteristic equation of a matrix A is given. Find the
size of the matrix and the possible dimensions of its eigenspaces.
(a) (λ − 1)(λ + 3)(λ − 5) = 0
(b) λ2(λ − 1)(λ − 2)3 = 0

17/311 Use the method of Example 6 to compute the matrix A10.

0 3
𝐴=
2 −1
Examples
19/311 Let

−1 7 −1 1 1 1
𝐴= 0 1 0 and 𝑃 = 0 0 1
0 15 −2 1 0 5

Confirm that P diagonalizes A, and then compute A11.


Examples
3 −1 0
21/311 Find An if n is a positive integer and 𝐴 = −1 2 −1 .
0 −1 3

22/312 Show that the matrices


1 1 1 3 0 0
𝐴 = 1 1 1 and 𝐵 = 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
are similar.
Examples
23/312 We know from Table 1 that similar matrices have the
same rank. Show that the converse is false by showing that the
1 0 0 1
𝐴= and 𝐵 =
0 0 0 0
have the same rank but are not similar. [Suggestion: If they were
similar, then there would be an invertible 2 × 2 matrix P for which
AP = PB. Show that there is no such matrix.]

25/312 If A, B, and C are n × n matrices such that A is similar to B


and B is similar to C, do you think that A must be similar to C?
Justify your answer.
Examples
27/312 Suppose that the characteristic polynomial of some
matrix A is found to be p(λ) = (λ − 1)(λ − 3)2(λ − 4)3. In each aprt,
answer the question and explain your reasoning.
(a) What can you say about the dimensions of the eigenspaces of
A?
(b) What can you say about the dimensions of the eigenspaces if
you know that A is diagonalizable?
(c) If {v1, v2, v3} is a linearly independent set of eigenvectors of A,
all of which correspond to the same eigenvalue of A, what can
you say about that eigenvalue?
General Linear
Transformations
Linear Algebra
Section Objectives
• At the end of the lesson, the student must be able to:
• Determine whether a function from one vector space to another is a
linear transformation;
• Find linear transformations form images of basis vectors; and
• Find the kernel, the range, and the bases for the kernel and range of a
linear transformation T, and determine the nullity and rank of T.
DEFINITION 1
If T: V → W is a mapping from a vector space V to a vector space
W, then T is called a linear transformation from V to W if the
following two properties hold for all vectors u and v in V and for
all scalars k:
(i) T(ku) = kT(u) [Homogeneity property]
(ii) T(u + v) = T(u) + T(v) [Additivity property]
In the special case where V = W, the linear transformation T is
called a linear operator on the vector space V.
DEFINITION 1
The homogeneity and additivity properties of a linear
transformation T: V → W can be used in combination to show
that if v1 and v2 are vectors in V and k1 and k2 are any scalars,
then
T(k1v1 + k2v2) = k1T(v1) + k2T(v2)
More generally, if v1, v2, …, vr are vectors in V and k1, k2, …, kr are
any scalars, then
T(k1v1 + k2v2 + … + krvr) = k1T(v1) + k2T(v2) + … + krT(vr) (1)
THEOREM 8.1.1
If T: V → W is a linear transformation, then:
(a) T(0) = 0.
(b) T(u − v) = T(u) − T(v) for all u and v in V.
Examples
1/448 Matrix Transformations
Because we have based the definition of a general linear
transformation on the homogeneity and additivity properties of
matrix transformations, it follows that every matrix
transformation TA: Rn → Rm is also a linear transformation in this
more general sense with V = Rn and W = Rm.
Examples
2/448 The Zero Transformation
Let V and W be any two vector spaces. The mapping T: V → W
such that T(v) = 0 for every v in V is a linear transformation called
the zero transformation. To see that T is linear, observe that

T(u + v) = 0, T(u) = 0, T(v) = 0, and T(ku) = 0

Therefore,
T(u + v) = T(u) + T(v) and T(ku) = kT(u)
Examples
3/448 The Identity Operator
Let V be any vector space. The mapping I: V → V defined by I(v) =
v is called the identity operator on V. We will leave it for you to
verify that I is linear.
Examples
4/449 Dilation and Contraction Operators
If V is a vector space and k is any scalar, then the mapping T: V →
V given by T(x) = kx is a linear operator on V, for if c is any scalar
and if u and v are any vectors in V, then
T(cu) = k(cu) = c(ku) = cT(u)
T(u + v) = k(u + v) = ku + kv = T(u) + T(v)

If 0 < k < 1, then T is called the contraction of V with factor k, and


if k > 1, it is called the dilation of V with factor k.
Examples
5/449 A Linear Transformation from Pn to Pn+1
Let p = p(x) = c0 + c1x + … + cnxn be a polynomial in Pn, and define
the transformation T: Pn → Pn+1 by
T(p) = T(p(x)) = xp(x) = c0x + c1x2 + … + cnxn+1
This transformation is linear because for any scalar k and
polynomials p1 and p2 in Pn we have
T(kp) = T(kp(x)) = x(kp(x)) = k(xp(x)) = kT(p)
and
T(p1 + p2) = T(p1(x) + p2(x)) = x(p1(x) + p2(x))
= xp1(x) + xp2(x) = T(p1) + T(p2)
Examples
6/449 A Linear Transformation Using the Dot Product
Let v0 be any fixed vector in Rn, and let T: Rn → R be the
transformation
𝑇 𝐱 = 𝐱 ⋅ 𝐯0
that maps a vector x to its dot product with v0. This
transformation is linear, for if k is any scalar, and if u and v are any
vectors in Rn, then it follows from properties of the dot product in
Theorem 3.2.2 that
T(ku) = (ku) ∙ v0 = k(u ∙ v0) = kT(u)
T(u + v) = (u + v) ∙ v0 = (u ∙ v0) + (v ∙ v0) = T(u) + T(v)
Examples
7/449 Transformations on Matrix Spaces
Let Mnn be the vector space of n × n matrices. In each part
determine whether the transformation is linear.
(a) T1(A) = AT
Solution (a) It follows from parts (b) and (d) of Theorem 1.4.8
that
T1(kA) = (kA)T = kAT = kT1(A)
T1(A + B) = (A + B)T = AT + BT = T1(A) + T1(B)
so T1 is linear.
Examples
7/449 Transformations on Matrix Spaces
Let Mnn be the vector space of n × n matrices. In each part
determine whether the transformation is linear.
(a) T2(A) = det(A)
Solution (b) It follows from Formula (1) of Section 2.3 that
T2(kA) = det(kA) = kndet(A) = knT2(A)
Thus, T2 is not homogeneous and hence not linear if n > 1. Note
that additivity also fails because we showed in Example 1 of
Section 2.3 that det(A + B) and det(A) + det(B) are not generally
equal.
Examples
8/450 Translation Is Not Linear
Part (a) of Theorem 8.1.1 states that a linear transformation maps
0 to 0. This property is useful for identifying transformations that
are not linear. For example, if x0 is a fixed nonzero vector in R2,
then the transformation
T(x) = x + x0
has the geometric effect of translating each point x in a direction
parallel to x0 through a distance of ‖x0‖ (Figure 8.1.1). This cannot
be a linear transformation since T(0) = x0, so T does not map 0 to
0.
Examples
8/450 Translation Is Not Linear
THEOREM 8.1.2
Let T: V → W be a linear transformation, where V is finite-
dimensional. If S = {v1, v2, …, vn} is a basis for V, then the image of
any vector v in V can be expressed as
T(v) = c1T(v1) + c2T(v2) + … + cnT(vn) (3)
where c1, c2, …, cn are the coefficients required to express v as a
linear combination of the vectors in the basis S.
Examples
10/451 Computing with Images of Basis Vectors
Consider the basis S = {v1, v2, v3} for R3, where
v1 = (1, 1, 1), v2 = (1, 1, 0), v3 = (1, 0, 0)
Let T: R3 → R2 be the linear transformation for which
T(v1) = (1, 0), T(v2) = (2, −1), T(v3) = (4,3)
Find a formula for T(x1, x2, x3), and then use that formula to
compute T(2, −3, 5).
Examples
10/451 Computing with Images of Basis Vectors
Solution We first need to express x = (x1, x2, x3) as a linear
combination of v1, v2, and v3. If we write
(x1, x2, x3) = c1(1, 1, 1) + c2(1, 1, 0) + c3(1, 0, 0)
then on equating corresponding components, we obtain
c1 + c2 + c3 = x1
c1 + c2 = x2
c1 = x3
which yields c1 = x3, c2 = x2 − x3, c3 = x1 − x2, so
Examples
10/451 Computing with Images of Basis Vectors
Solution
(x1, x2, x3) = x3(1, 1, 1) + (x2 − x3)(1, 1, 0) + (x1 − x2)(1, 1, 0)
= x3v1 + (x2 − x3)v2 + (x1 − x2)v3
Thus,
T(x1, x2, x3) = x3T(v1) + (x2 − x3)T(v2) + (x1 − x2)T(v3)
= x3(1, 0) + (x2 − x3)(2, −1) + (x1 − x2)(4, 3)
= (4x1 − 2x2 − x3, 3x1 − 4x2 + x3)
From this formula we obtain
T(2, −3, 5) = (9, 23)
DEFINITION 2
If T: V → W is a linear transformation, then the set of vectors in V
that T maps into 0 is called the kernel of T and is denoted by
ker(T). The set of all vectors in W that are images under T of at
least one vector V is called the range of T and is denoted by R(T).
Examples
13/452 Kernel and Range of a Matrix Transformation
If TA: Rn → Rm is multiplication by the m × n matrix A, then, as
discussed above, the kernel of TA is the null space of A, and the
range of TA is the column space of A.

14/452 Kernel and Range of the Zero Transformation


Let T: V → W be the zero transformation. Since T maps every
vector in V into 0, it follows that ker(T) = V. Moreover, since 0 is
the only image under T of vectors in V, it follows that R(T) = {0}.
Examples
15/452 Kernel and Range of the Identity Operator
Let I: V → V be the identity operator. Since I(v) = v for all vectors
in V, every vector V is the image of some vector (namely, itself);
thus R(I) = V. Since the only vector I maps into 0 is 0, it follows
that ker(I) = {0}.
Examples
16/452 Kernel and Range of an Orthogonal Projection
Let T: R3 → R3 be the orthogonal projection onto xy-plane. As
illustrated in Figure 8.1.2a, the points that T maps into 0 = (0, 0,
0) are precisely those on the z-axis, so ker(T) is the set of points of
the form (0, 0, z). As illustrated in Figure 8.1.2b, T maps the points
in R3 to the xy-plane, where each point in that plane is the image
of each point on the vertical line above it. Thus, R(T) is the set of
points of the form (x, y, 0).
Examples
16/452 Kernel and Range of an Orthogonal Projection
Examples
17/453 Kernel and Range of a Rotation
Let T: R2 → R2 be the linear operator that rotates each vector in
the xy-plane through the angle θ (Figure 8.1.3). Since every vector
in the xy-plane can be obtained by rotating some vector through
the angle θ, it follows that R(T) = R2. Moreover, the only vector
that rotates into 0 is 0, so ker(T) = {0}.
Examples
17/453 Kernel and Range of a Rotation
THEOREM 8.1.3
If T: V → W is a linear transformation, then:
(a) The kernel of T is a subspace of V.
(b) The range of T is a subspace of W.
DEFINITION 3
Let T: V → W be a linear transformation. If the range of T is finite-
dimensional, then its dimension is called the rank of T; and if the
kernel of T is finite-dimensional, then its dimension is called the
nullity of T. The rank of T is denoted by rank(T) and the nullity of
T by nullity(T).
THEOREM 8.1.4
Dimension Theorem for Linear Transformations
If T: V → W is a linear transformation from a finite-dimensional
vector space V to a vector space W, then the range of T is finite-
dimensional, and
rank(T) + nullity(T) = dim(V) (7)
THEOREM 8.1.4
In the special case where A is an m × n matrix and TA: Rn → Rm is
multiplication by A, the kernel of TA is the null space of A, and the
range of TA is the column space of A. Thus, it follows from
Theorem 8.1.4 that
rank(TA) + nullity(TA) = n

Proof of Theorem 8.1.4


Assuming that V is n-dimensional,
dim(R(T)) + dim(ker(T)) = n
Examples
1/456 Suppose that T is a mapping whose domain is the vector
space M22. In each part, determine whether T is a linear
transformation, and if so, find its kernel.
(a) T(A) = A2 (b) T(A) = tr(A) (c) T(A) = A + AT

3/456 Determine whether the mapping T is a linear


transformation, and if so, find its kernel.
T: R3 → R, where T(u) = ‖u‖.
Examples
5/456 Determine whether the mapping T is a linear
transformation, and if so, find its kernel.
T: M22 → M23, where B is a fixed 2 × 3 matrix and T(A) = AB.

7/456 Determine whether the mapping T is a linear


transformation, and if so, find its kernel.
T: P2 → P2, where
(a) T(a0 + a1x +a2x2) = a0 + a1(x + 1) + a2(x + 1)2
(b) T(a0 + a1x +a2x2) = (a0 + 1) + (a1 + 1)x + (a2 + 1)x2
Examples
9/456 Determine whether the mapping T is a linear
transformation, and if so, find its kernel.
T: R∞ → R∞, where
T(a0, a1, a2, …, an, …) = (0, a0, a1, a2, …, an, …)
Examples
10/456 Let T: P2 → P3 be the linear transformation defined by
T(p(x)) = xp(x). Which of the following are in ker(T)?
(a) x2 (b) 0 (c) 1 + x (d) −x

11/456 Let T: P2 → P3 be the linear transformation in Exercise 10.


Which of the following are in R(T)?
(a) x + x2 (b) 1 + x (c) 3 − x2 (d) −x
Examples
13/456 In each part, use the given information to find the nullity
of the linear transformation T.
(a) T: R5 → P5 has rank 3.
(b) T: P4 → P3 has rank 1.

15/456 Let T: M22 → M22 be the dilation operator with factor k =


3.
1 2
(a) Find 𝑇 . (b) Find the rank and nullity of T.
−4 3
Examples
17/456 Let T: P2 → R3 be the evaluation transformation at the
sequence of points −1, 0, 1. Find
(a) T(x2) (b) ker(T) (c) R(T)

19/456 Consider the basis S = {v1, v2} for R2, where v1 = (1, 1) and
v2 = (1, 0), and let T: R2 → R2 be the linear operator for which
T(v1) = (1, −2) and T(v2) = (−4, 1)
Find a formula for T(x1, x2), and use that formula to find T(5, −3).
Examples
21/456 Consider the basis S = {v1, v2, v3} for R3, where v1 = (1, 1,
1), v2 = (1, 1, 0), and v3 = (1, 0, 0), and let T: R3 → R3 be the linear
operator for which
T(v1) = (2, −1, 4), T(v2) = (3, 0, 1), T(v3) = (−1, 5, 1)
Find a formula for T(x1, x2, x3), and use that formula to find T(2, 4,
−1).
Examples
23/457 Let T: P3 → P2 be the mapping defined by
T(a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3) = 5a0 + a3x2
(a) Show that T is linear.
(b) Find a basis for the kernel of T.
(c) Find a basis for the range of T.
Examples
29/457 (a) Let T: V → R3 be a linear transformation from a vector
space V to R3. Geometrically, what are the possibilities for the
range of T?

(b) Let T: R3 → W be a linear transformation from R3 to a vector


space W. Geometrically, what are the possibilities for the kernel
of T?
Examples
31/457 Let v1, v2, and v3 be vectors in a space V, and let T: V → R3
be a linear transformation for which
T(v1) = (1, −1, 2), T(v2) = (0, 3, 2), T(v3) = (−3, 1, 2)
Find T(2v1 − 3v2 + 4v3).

33/457 Let {v1, v2, …, vn} be a basis for a vector space V, and let T:
V → V be a linear operator. Prove that if
T(v1) = v1, T(v2) = v2, …, T(vn) = vn
then T is the identity transformation on V.
References
• Anton and Rorres. Elementary Linear Algebra, 11th Ed. © 2014
• Larson and Falvo. Elementary Linear Algebra, 6th Ed. © 2009