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Monica Sainy
Shri Vaishnav Vidyapeeth Vishwavidyalaya

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Learning Objectives
 Basic Understanding of the case
 Types of cases
 Methods for solving the cases
 SWOT/TOWS Matrix
 ETOP analysis
 SAP Analysis
 Porter's 5 Force Model
 BCG Matrix
 Porters Generic Strategies
 Steps for case Analysis
 How to write the analysis of the case
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What is a Case?
 A case reflects a slice of real life.
 This slice can never replicate the 100% of the business
situation and scenario.
 It enables discussing the business reality in a class
room setting.
 The purpose is to sharpen the analytical abilities and
executive judgment.

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A ‘Case’ can be defined as
 “ A case typically is a record of a business issue which
actually has been faced by business executives,
together with surrounding facts, opinions and
prejudices, upon which executive decisions had to

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 In a case method the student gains an opportunity to
develop analytical and planning skills, through
 repeated personal analysis
 discussions with others
 Definition of problem
 Identification of alternatives
 Statement of objectives & decision criteria
 choice of action & plan of implementation

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Case Philosophy
 The first Philosophy is “ Wisdom can’t be told, one
has to actually experience the situation”
 The second is “ It is the Socratic method of question
and discovery through discussion, debate , dialogue at
the lateral level in the best learning process
 The third is “ No Right or wrong answer”
 The fourth is “ To start with the practice and then go to
the theory”

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 “ A good case is the vehicle by which a chunk of
reality is brought into the classroom to be worked
over by the class and the instructor.”

 “ A good case must enable a passionate debate.”

 “A good case provides data and information in a
manner which could facilitate students to either
understand a business concept or support their
arguments with the help of facts.

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Learning outcomes
 Self Education
 Attitudinal Change
 Acceptance of Theoretical concepts
 Real learning through the experience
 Skill of applying tools & technique
 Interpersonal Acceptance
 An educational vehicles to give students an
opportunity to put themselves in the decision maker’s
or problem solver’s shoes.

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Types of cases
 Success or Failure Stories
 ISSUES Identification Cases
 Functional Strategy Cases
 Comprehensive Cases
 Caselets

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Success or Failure Stories

 A three to four page case sharing the success or failure

 This can be on a new recruitment policy, new
incentives for the Human resources or introduction of
a new product.
 The purpose is to identify the reasons for failure or

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ISSUES Identification Cases
 These cases are written in a manner which can help
the students to identify the issues being faced by an
 The length of such cases may be 5 to 20 pages.

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Functional Strategy Cases
 These cases provide a comprehensive view of a specific
function like marketing, human resources, operations
management .
 These cases offer opportunity to identify and evaluate
alternative strategies available.

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Comprehensive Cases

 These cover overall growth strategies, mergers &

acquisition, performance of a firm over the years,
leader ship and vision of an organization
 The contexts of such cases are the jobs and challenges
of a CEO/president/project director etc.

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 The maximum length of the caselets is not more than
two pages.
 Caselets are written in a manner which reflects the
dilemmas or conflicts which a decision maker may be
 Being short the students can read these cases in a few
minutes and then participate in a lively and
meaningful debate.

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Methods of Case Analysis- SWOT

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MacDonald's case

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Porters 5 force Model

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When should we use this tool
 To analyze the attractiveness and likely profitability of
an industry
 It’s a business strategy tools

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BCG Matrix
 Dogs: Low Market share/ Low market Growth: very less
economies of scale, difficult to make a profit
 Cash Cows: High market Share/ low Market Growth:
Well established, easy to get attention & exploit new
opportunities, efforts needed for expansion.
 Stars: High market Share/ high Market growth: Well
established, growth is exciting, fantastic opportunities,
work hard to realize them
 Question Mark: Low market share/High Market
Growth: opportunities are there no one knows what to do,
not generating much revenue, don’t have large market
share but they are in high to come on ctars & cash cows
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Four different strategies to
 Build Market Share: to maintain the star status or
turn question mark to stars
 Hold: maintain status quo(do nothing)
 Harvest: enjoy +ve cash flow and maximize profits
from star or cash cows
 Divest: Get rid of Dogs, use that capital in stars or
some ?

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Porter’s Generic Strategies

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ETOP Analysis

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PESTLE Analysis

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SAP Analysis(Strategic
advantage Profile)

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Situational Analysis(5 C’s
 Case attached

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Effective steps for Case Analysis
Step 1 : Getting Started
• Read the case twice
• Try to read between the lines and get the background
information and note important points
• Apply the principal (5W & 1 H)
• Recognize the relevant information

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 Step – 2 facts & figures
 Identify critical statements by major parties
 List all goal of the major parties that exit or can be
reasonably inferred
 Note down the factual information as given in the case

 Step 3 (Identification of the problem)

 Identify predicaments(Goal inconsistencies)
 Identify major & minor problems
 Priorities predicaments/problem regarding timimg,
importance etc

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 Step 4(Environment Diagnosis)
• Identify the environmental factors which directly or
indirectly discussed in the case
• Apply the tools for Environmental scanning

 Step 5( Strategic Alternatives)

• Provide strategic alternative on th basis of
environmental scanning
• Evaluate each alternative on the basis of its consistency
with the desired objectives
• Choosing Best strategy for desired results

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Step 6(Doing the action Plan)
 Formulate the detail plan to achieve the objective by
means of chosen the strategy
 Enable feedback for proper control and fine tuning

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{also area specific analysis can be done e.g. grid study in
hr,PERT,CPM, Ratio analysis(du pont),and other statistical tools as
per requirement}

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