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RAINWATER HARVESTING TANK:

Optimization of Volume for flushing requirements

CVL 724

Radhika COORDINATOR:
Alankrita Prof A. K. Nema
Sumit Yadav Dept of Civil Engineering
Jigyashu IIT Delhi
INTRODUCTION
• Context - Water Shortage (Water stressed towards water
scarce)
• Delhi consumption norm - 225 lpcd (Draft Water Policy,
DJB)
• Target - Bring down 10 lpcd every year for next 5 years
• RWH - collecting, storing and distributing rainwater for
multiple uses
FEASIBILITY of RWH system

RAINFALL PROFILE OF THE AREA WATER DEMAND OF


CONCERNED END USERS

EFFECTIVE ROOF AREA


Factors COSTS OF INSTALLATION
OF THE BUILDING
Involved

VOLUME OF RWH TANK COSTS OF PURCHASING WATER


FROM MUNICIPAL SUPPLY
THE PROBLEM

 Residential Housing
Complex Volume of RWH tank
 Roof Area at minimum cost
 Runoff Coefficient for (capital cost of storage
TO
KNOWN system and
roof type FIND supplemental water
 No of Residents
 Water Demand cost from Municipal
(Flushing) Supply.)
 Monthly Rainfall Data

Optimization Using Dynamic Programming


MODEL FORMULATION
Pi

A
Ri Overflow/ SPILL

Water
Demand for

flushing, Di Ui
Tcap
Freshwater from Municipal

Supply, Vi
 Monthly Rainfall that CAN be harvested
Ri = Pi*Cr*A/1000
Pi= Monthly Precipitation depth, in mm
Cr= coefficient of runoff (dimensionless)
A= Building Rooftop Area, in square meters

 Monthly Demand for flushing requirements


Di = Wd*Ni*n/1000

Wd= water demand for toiled flushing, in lpcd


Ni= No of days in the ‘i’th month
n=Number of residents.
Objective Function

𝑖
• C= α * Tcap + β ∗ σ𝑖=1 𝑉𝑖/( 1 + 𝑟/12 ^𝑖)
i= Number of months
Tcap= Capacity of the tank,
Vi= Amount of water purchased from water mains supply in ith month
r = Annual Discounting Rate
α= Yearly cost of building & installing a RWH system per unit volume
β= Cost of purchasing water from Municipal Water Supply System per unit volume
Constraints R1 R12

S1=0 S2= S1+ R1 - U1 S12 S13


• Si+1= Si +Ri -Ui (IV) JULY JUNE

• Ui=Minimum (Di, Si +Ri) (V)


U12
U

1
Si+Ri ≤ Tcap (VI)
• Vi= Di - Ui (VII)
• Tcap , Si , Ui , Vi ≥ 0 (VIII)
• 0 ≤ i ≤ 12 (IX)
• S1=0 (X)

Ui= Amount of water used from the rainwater tank for ith month, to satisfy the demand,
Si= Storage volume in the tank at the beginning of ith month,
Si+1= Storage Volume in the tank at the end of ith month
ASSUMPTIONS

Rooftop Runoff Coefficient for concrete roof = 0.7[Evaporation, Leakage] (1)

Daily flushing requirements = 16 lpcd (assumed to be constant) (2)

Demand primarily satisfied by water in tank, then by Municipal Water Supply

Cost of purchasing water (β) from DJB fixed as 26 INR per cubic metre

Cost of pipe, filter, pumps, installation etc = 10% of cost of rainwater storage tank

Rainfall at month beginning, demand satisfied at month end for model solving
Assume Tcap Optimization in MATLAB
Run the following for i=1 to i=12

STEP 1
Si+Ri ≤ Tcap

STEP 2
Ui=Min (Di, Si +Ri)

STEP 3
Si+1= Si +Ri -Ui

STEP 4
Vi= Di - Ui Compute objective function C.
Optimal Tank Volume Tcap corresponding
to minimum Objective Function.
CASE STUDY & DATA COLLECTION
• Residential Housing Complex in Delhi, n = 100
• A=1000 sq. meter
• Pi value from CRIS (Customized Rainfall Information System), Hydromet
Division, Indian Meteorological Department. (Years 2013-2017)
• M. Dinesh et al. , 2010 (3) suggested construction cost of 15 m3 RWH tank as
15000 INR. Discounted at an annual rate = 5%, it becomes 2078 INR per cubic
meter for total period of the RWH. Assuming a period of 30 years for the RWH
system to be operating, the yearly total cost of building a RWH system per
cubic meter is α= 2078*1.1/30 including both variable and fixed costs
associated with building & installation of RWH system.
RESULTS
14000

12000

10000

Cost
8000
Function
(Objective
Function) 6000
(in INR)

4000

2000

0
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70
Tcap (cubic metres)
CONCLUSION

• For a flushing demand of 16 lpcd for a Delhi based


residential complex (concrete roof, Area= 1000 sq. meter)
inhabited by 100 people, the optimum Volume of RWH
Tank has been found to be 49 cubic meter corresponding
to minimum yearly total cost of 9712 INR. The model has
been solved using MATLAB.
FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK
• Daily Rainfall Data instead of Monthly data will lead to
more realistic results
• Instead of constant cost of purchasing water from
Municipal Supply, the actual IBRT (Increasing Block Rate
Tariff) to be used for accuracy
• The model should be run for total life span of the RWH
system (here 30 years) instead of one year (as done in this
work)
REFERENCES

1. Manual on Construction and Maintainenance of Household based Rooftop


Water Harvesting Systems, Report prepared by AFPRO (Action for Food
Production) for UNICEF: A publication of UNICEF/Programme Division, Water,
Environment and Sanitation Section (ID No. PD/WES/99/1)
2. Gato, S., Jayasuriuya, N., Roberts, P., Hadgraft, R., 2004. Understanding
residential water use. In: Proceedings of the Enviro 04 Conference, Sydney,
2004 (CD).
3. Kumar, M. Dinesh. "Roof water harvesting for domestic water security: who
gains and who loses?." Water International 29.1 (2004): 43-53.
THANK YOU!