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Lecture-01

Introduction to Measurements
Lecture delivered by:
Ms. Pranupa S

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Objectives
At the end of this lecture, student will be able to:

• Describe the definition of measurements

• Explain about the basics and history of measurements

• Describe the need of measurements

• Explain the history and evolution of SI units

• Explain and classify the units of measurements

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Topics

• Introduction to measurements

• Basics of measurements

• History of Measurement

• History of International Systems (SI)

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Measurement

Part of the output from the signal conditioning


system or display is used to control the stimulus or
the entire operation of the system

Temperature,
pressure, flow

Its vital part of system. Visual, audible,


Stimulus may be visual, tactile or just
electrical, auditory or tactile electrical signals
Converts one form of energy to
Subject other. Usually provides an electrical
signal analog to physiological signal
being measured
(person on whom measurements
are being done)
Graphic pen recorder, an analog or digital
recording system (computer)
Amplification, modulation, filtering.
Usually combines or relates the outputs
of two or more transducer. Develops Ref: Cromwell et al (1980) , Webster JG (2002)
signals suitable for display and recording
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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Measurement - Definition
• Measurement is collection of quantitative data.
A measurement is made by comparing a quantity with a
standard unit. Since this comparison cannot be perfect,
measurements inherently include error

"MEASUREMENT“ is the determination of the size or magnitude of


something “or" the comparison of unknown quantity with some
standard quantity of the same rates

Example
The length of a piece of string can be measured by
comparing the string against a meter stick
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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Instrumentation

The study, development, and manufacture of instruments, as for


scientific or for industrial use is called instrumentation

Ref: website, Morton medicals , UK Ref: website, Cardinal Health , UK

BP- sphygmomanometer Heart functioning -ECG Breath rate - spirometer

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Basic Objectives of an Instrumentation System
• Information Gathering – The instrument measures the
physiological function

Ref: website, science learning

• Diagnosis – measurements are made to help in detection and


hopefully aid in correction of any symptoms

Ref: website, science learning 7


Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Basic Requirements for Measurement
• Evaluation- measurements are used to determine the ability of system to meet its
functional requirements, “quality control like tests”

Ref: website, science learning

• Monitoring – monitors an operation or process to obtain continuous or periodic


information about the state of the system

Ref: website, Advance USA, Ultrasound at


center of state abortion wars

• Control – automatically controls the operation of system based on changes in one


or more internal parameters or in the output of the system

Ref: website, CASE western reserve university, Image


guided drug delivery system

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
A General Instrumentation System
A general instrumentation system may consists
of a single or a combination of functions
mentioned below
1. Indicator function
2. Recording function Ref: website, CASE western reserve university, Image guided
drug delivery system

3. Control function

http://www.wenzhouhuaxia.html
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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Indicator Function

• Instrument with an indicator function indicates a physiologic


information may be by a moving pointer on a meter, an aural
or visual alarm, or by flashing numbers or words on a screen
to describe the variable being measured

Ref: www.itechnews.net

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Recording System
• Many instruments not only indicate the value of a variable at a particular
instant in time, but can also make a permanent record of this quality as
time progresses, thus carrying out a recording function

• Instruments carry out the recording function by displaying the measured


variable on a computer screen or a printed page

• Modern systems perform the function by storing data in digital form on


media such as semiconductor memory and magnetic or optical discs

Ref: www.itechnews.net

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Control Systems – Feed Back Systems
• Controlling instruments can, after indicating a particular
variable, exert an influence upon the source of the variable to
cause it to change.
• A simple example of a controlling instrument is an ordinary
room thermostat.
• If the room is too cold, the thermostat measures the
temperature and senses that it is too cold; then it sends a
signal to the room heating system, encouraging it to supply
more heat to the room to increase the temperature and vice
versa
• Biomedical example : Drug delivery systems, FES

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Ref: www.itechnews.net
Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Block Diagram of a Bio-Instrument System

Part of the output from the signal conditioning


system or display is used to control the stimulus
or the entire operation of the system

Temperature,
pressure, flow

Its vital part of system. Visual, audible,


Stimulus may be visual, tactile or just
electrical, auditory or tactile electrical signals

Converts one form of energy to


Subject other. Usually provides an
electrical signal analog to
physiological signal being
(person on whom
measured
measurements are being done)
Graphic pen recorder, an analog or
digital recording system (computer)
Amplification, modulation, filtering.
Usually combines or relates the
outputs of two or more transducer.
Develops signals suitable for display
Ref: Cromwell et al (1980) , Webster JG (2002)
and recording 13
Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Summary
• Measurement is collection of quantitative data
• Without units, the number obtained by measuring has no
physical meaning
• Units can neither be derived from one another nor can be
resolved into any other units. They are independent of one
another
• Units of physical quantities can be expressed in terms of
fundamental units and such units are called derived units

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Course Intended Learning Outcomes
After undergoing this subject students will be able to:

1. Describe measurement standards, measurement units and


measurement systems
2. Describe the principles and applications of signal and function
generators and analyzers
3. Develop models of measurement systems and analyze their static and
dynamic characteristics
4. Design appropriate signal conditioning circuits and choose recording /
display devices
5. Set up instrumentation for a system and measure resistance,
capacitance, inductance, current, voltage and power and other
relevant quantities
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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences