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# Lecture-01

Introduction to Measurements
Lecture delivered by:
Ms. Pranupa S

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Objectives
At the end of this lecture, student will be able to:

## • Explain and classify the units of measurements

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Topics

• Introduction to measurements

• Basics of measurements

• History of Measurement

## • History of International Systems (SI)

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Measurement

## Part of the output from the signal conditioning

system or display is used to control the stimulus or
the entire operation of the system

Temperature,
pressure, flow

## Its vital part of system. Visual, audible,

Stimulus may be visual, tactile or just
electrical, auditory or tactile electrical signals
Converts one form of energy to
Subject other. Usually provides an electrical
signal analog to physiological signal
being measured
(person on whom measurements
are being done)
Graphic pen recorder, an analog or digital
recording system (computer)
Amplification, modulation, filtering.
Usually combines or relates the outputs
of two or more transducer. Develops Ref: Cromwell et al (1980) , Webster JG (2002)
signals suitable for display and recording
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Measurement - Definition
• Measurement is collection of quantitative data.
A measurement is made by comparing a quantity with a
standard unit. Since this comparison cannot be perfect,
measurements inherently include error

## "MEASUREMENT“ is the determination of the size or magnitude of

something “or" the comparison of unknown quantity with some
standard quantity of the same rates

Example
The length of a piece of string can be measured by
comparing the string against a meter stick
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Instrumentation

## The study, development, and manufacture of instruments, as for

scientific or for industrial use is called instrumentation

## BP- sphygmomanometer Heart functioning -ECG Breath rate - spirometer

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Basic Objectives of an Instrumentation System
• Information Gathering – The instrument measures the
physiological function

## • Diagnosis – measurements are made to help in detection and

hopefully aid in correction of any symptoms

## Ref: website, science learning 7

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Basic Requirements for Measurement
• Evaluation- measurements are used to determine the ability of system to meet its
functional requirements, “quality control like tests”

## • Monitoring – monitors an operation or process to obtain continuous or periodic

information about the state of the system

## Ref: website, Advance USA, Ultrasound at

center of state abortion wars

## • Control – automatically controls the operation of system based on changes in one

or more internal parameters or in the output of the system

## Ref: website, CASE western reserve university, Image

guided drug delivery system

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A General Instrumentation System
A general instrumentation system may consists
of a single or a combination of functions
mentioned below
1. Indicator function
2. Recording function Ref: website, CASE western reserve university, Image guided
drug delivery system

3. Control function

http://www.wenzhouhuaxia.html
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Indicator Function

## • Instrument with an indicator function indicates a physiologic

information may be by a moving pointer on a meter, an aural
or visual alarm, or by flashing numbers or words on a screen
to describe the variable being measured

Ref: www.itechnews.net

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Recording System
• Many instruments not only indicate the value of a variable at a particular
instant in time, but can also make a permanent record of this quality as
time progresses, thus carrying out a recording function

## • Instruments carry out the recording function by displaying the measured

variable on a computer screen or a printed page

## • Modern systems perform the function by storing data in digital form on

media such as semiconductor memory and magnetic or optical discs

Ref: www.itechnews.net

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Control Systems – Feed Back Systems
• Controlling instruments can, after indicating a particular
variable, exert an influence upon the source of the variable to
cause it to change.
• A simple example of a controlling instrument is an ordinary
room thermostat.
• If the room is too cold, the thermostat measures the
temperature and senses that it is too cold; then it sends a
signal to the room heating system, encouraging it to supply
more heat to the room to increase the temperature and vice
versa
• Biomedical example : Drug delivery systems, FES

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Ref: www.itechnews.net
Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Block Diagram of a Bio-Instrument System

## Part of the output from the signal conditioning

system or display is used to control the stimulus
or the entire operation of the system

Temperature,
pressure, flow

## Its vital part of system. Visual, audible,

Stimulus may be visual, tactile or just
electrical, auditory or tactile electrical signals

## Converts one form of energy to

Subject other. Usually provides an
electrical signal analog to
physiological signal being
(person on whom
measured
measurements are being done)
Graphic pen recorder, an analog or
digital recording system (computer)
Amplification, modulation, filtering.
Usually combines or relates the
outputs of two or more transducer.
Develops signals suitable for display
Ref: Cromwell et al (1980) , Webster JG (2002)
and recording 13
Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

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Faculty of Engineering & Technology © Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences
Summary
• Measurement is collection of quantitative data
• Without units, the number obtained by measuring has no
physical meaning
• Units can neither be derived from one another nor can be
resolved into any other units. They are independent of one
another
• Units of physical quantities can be expressed in terms of
fundamental units and such units are called derived units

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Course Intended Learning Outcomes
After undergoing this subject students will be able to:

## 1. Describe measurement standards, measurement units and

measurement systems
2. Describe the principles and applications of signal and function
generators and analyzers
3. Develop models of measurement systems and analyze their static and
dynamic characteristics
4. Design appropriate signal conditioning circuits and choose recording /
display devices
5. Set up instrumentation for a system and measure resistance,
capacitance, inductance, current, voltage and power and other
relevant quantities
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