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# LAB MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

SECTION 7
GROUP 3

##  MUHAMMAD NAIM FIRDAUS BIN MAZLAN

 AMIRA BALQISH BINTI SUKRI
 NUR FATIHAH BINTI AZIZI
 NUERLYANA ZAFIRAH BINTI ROZZAMAN
 SALINA BINTI SANI
BENDING MOMENT OF BEAM
OBJECTIVES
1. To examine how bending moment varies with an increasing point load.
2. To examine how bending moment varies at the cut position of the beam for various loading condition.
THEORY

A bending moment is the reaction induced in a structural element when an external force or moment is applied to the element
causing the element to bend. The most common or simplest structural element subjected to bending moments is the beam.
APPARATUS

Bending moment
apparatus Digital forces display
PROCEDURE

## Put the hanger with

Convert the mass in
a 100g to the left of
Newton by
First Test Check digital force the ‘cut’. Take the
multiplied with 9.81 Calculate the
zero with load= 0 the step with using
into bending
masses between 200
moment (Nm)
g to 500g.

## Check digital force Convert force

Second Test Place the beam and Calculate the support
hanger at any point reaction.

## FREE BODY DIAGRAM

RESULT AND DATA

TABLE 1
EXPERIMENTAL THEORETICAL
MASS LOAD FORCE BENDING MOMENT BENDING MOMENT
(N) (N) (Nm) (Nm)

TABLE 2
NO W1 W2 FORCE EXPERIMENTAL BENDING RA (N) RB (N) THEORETICAL
(N) MOMENT BENDING
(Nm) MOMENT (Nm)

FORMULA
DISCUSSION

## • Plotting bending moment diagram

• Comparing the experimental result with result calculated using theoretical.

CONCLUSION

• The conclusion of this experiment is student will able to see how bending moment varies with an increasing point load and
bending moment varies at the cut position of the beam for various loading condition.

REFRENCES

• https://www.green-mechanic.com/2017/02/bending-stresses-in-beam-lab-report.html
• https://www.coursehero.com/file/24156531/LAB-1-BENDING-MOMENT-IN-A-BEAMdoc/
DEFLECTION OF BEAM
Aim
 To determine the relationship between span and the deflection.

Theory
 Deflection refers to movement of a beam from its original position due
to the forces and loads being applied to the member.
 The theoretical deflection is always lower than the actual deflection.
 Elastic Theory is used in determining the deflection of beam under load.
 Double Integration Method is used in this experiment.
Formula

## Point load at mid span of

beam
Apparatus
 Specimen Beam ( Ex : Aluminium , Steel and Brass)
 Digital Dial Test Indicator
 Hanger and Masses

Procedure
 The width and depth of the specimen were measured by vernier gauge.
 The moveable support is positioned until it is 500mm apart.
 Put the digital dial test indicator and the hanger at the mid span.
 After that, zero the indicator.
 Apply an incremental load which is from 10 to 50g and record the
deflection in each increment.
 Repeat the procedure using span of 400mm and 300mm.
SHEAR FORCE IN BEAM

THEORY
 Shear stress is the force applied on per unit area of the member
 Shear force is the resultant force acting on any one of the part of the beam to
the axis

AIM:
 To determine how shear forces varies with an increasing point load
PROCEDURES

 Make sure the digital force display meter is zero when no load
applied
 A hanger with 100g mass was placed at left form support.
 Record the digital force calculate the theoretical shear force at w
 Repeat the procedure using 200g, 300g, and 500g
 Calculate the theoretical shear force at w
 Sketch the graph to compare the theoretical and experimental
CALCULATION

a: distance between the pivot point and point of force application
(mm)
L : the total length of the beam (mm)

##  Percentage error, PE:

BUCKLING OF COMPRESSION
MEMBER
 AIM :
I. TO DETERMINE CRITICAL BUCKLING LOADS FOR COLUMNS WITH SUPPORT.
II. TO TEST THE EULER’S THEORY OF BUCKLING.
III. TO INVESTIGATE THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT OF DIFFERENT MATERIAL
PARAMETER.

 APPARATUS:
 SPECIMEN HOLDERS.
 SPECIMENS( STEEL,ALUMINIUM,BRASS )
 DEFORMATION MEASUREMENT.
 LATERAL LOAD DEVICE WITH WEIGHT.
 (BUCKLING STRUT APPARATUS)
PROCEDURE:
1. THE DEVICE WAS SET UP IN VERTICAL POSITION.
2. THE THRUST PIECE WITH V NOTCH INTO ATTACHMENT SOCKET AND FASTEN WITH CLAMPING SCREW
WAS INSERTED.
3. LONG THRUST PIECE WITH V NOTCH INTO THE GUIDE BUSH OF LOAD CROSS-BAR WAS INSERTED
AND WAS BEEN HOLD FIRMLY.
4. THE S2 ROD SPECIMEN WITH EDGES IN THE V NOTCH WAS INSERTED.
5. THE LOAD CROSS-BAR WAS CLAMPED ON THE GUIDE COLUMN IN SUCH A MANNER THAT THERE WAS
STILL APPROXIMATELY 5MM FOR THE TOP THRUST PIECE TO MOVE.
6. THE ROD SPECIMEN WAS ALIGNED IN SUCH A MANNER THAT IT’S BUCKLING DIRECTION POINTS IN
THE DIRECTION OF THE LATERAL GUIDE COLUMNS.
7. THE ROD SPECIMEN WITH LOW, NON-MEASURABLE FORCE WAS RETIGHTENING.
8. THE MEASURING GAUGE WAS ALIGNED TO THE MIDDLE OF THE ROD SPECIMEN USING THE
SUPPORTING CLAMPS. THE MEASURING GAUGE WAS SET AT A RIGHT ANGLE TO THE DIRECTION OF
BUCKLING.
9. THE MEASURING GAUGE WAS PRETIGHTEN TO 10MM DEFLECTION WITH THE ADJUSTABLE SUPPORT.
10. THE ROD SPECIMEN LOAD WAS SLOWLY SUBJECTED USING THE LOAD NUT.
11. THE DEFLECTION WAS RECORDED FROM THE MEASURING GAUGE. THE DEFLECTION WAS READ
AND RECORDED AT EVERY 0.25MM UP TO 1MM.
CALCULATION

 ACCORDING TO THE THEORY, THE CRITICAL (OR EULER) BUCKLING LOAD P CR, CRITICAL
STRESS CR, AND SLENDERNESS RATIO L/R CAN BE CALCULATED BY THE FOLLOWING
FORMULAS:

 where:
E is the modulus of elasticity.
I is the moment of initial of the beam, I = b h 3 / 12.
b is the width of the beam and h is the thickness of the beam.
L is the length of the beam.
A is the cross section area of the beam, A = bh.
RESULT

Graph 1
Table 1

## THEN, THE STRESS ON THE BEAM CAN BE CALCULATED

TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING
GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
To determine
the Modulus
of Elasticity of
reinforcement
bar.
PROCEDURES
APPARATUS
 Reinforcement Steel Bar – use 16mm diameter with 600mm length

 Universal Testing Machine (UTM) – identify of yield strength & modulus of elasticity of high tensile deformed bar

 Extensometer- measure the elongation of a test place on load for the set gauge length.
 Vernier Caliper – measure the diameters and lengths of the specimen.
Based on table:
Convert kg to Newton
Example: 47.536 x 9.81 = 466.32816 N

2. Stress, σ
σ = F / A
Area given is 201mm2, which diameter of steel bar is 16mm.
Based on table:
Example: 466.32816 N / 201 mm2 = 2.32 N / mm2

3.
Strain, ε
ε = (L / Lo) x 100%
Expand length, L = value get from strokes (refer table)
Original length, Lo = 50 mm
Example: (-0.00020 mm / 50 mm) x 100% = -0.000004

4. Area, A

D = 16 mm
201 mm2