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Independent and

dependent clauses
Learning Objective
 Today I will distinguish between
independent and dependent clauses
 I will be able to write an analogy for
independent and dependent clauses.
 I will be able to write and punctuate
complex sentences correctly.
Why are we going over this?
 Too many of you have included sentence
fragments in your writing. In other words,
you are not using complete sentences!
The Clause:
 Clauses ALWAYS have subjects and verbs
 Clauses are categorized into 2 groups:
 Independent (AKA main)
 Dependent (AKA subordinate)
 The independent clause can stand alone as a
complete sentence or thought (not a fragment)
 The dependent clause CANNOT stand alone; it
has a subject and verb, but is a fragment and
DEPENDS on a main clause to make sense
An analogy to help:
 Think of the Main Clause as a manager.
 Think of the Subordinate Clauses as
workers.
 The Subordinates cannot do the work
without the Manager’s approval (otherwise,
chaos ensues).
 Thus, any subordinate clause always
needs a main clause to manage them.
Or if that didn’t make sense to you,
try this one:
 The independent clause can be thought of
as a parent.
 Whereas the dependent (subordinate)
clauses can be thought of as the children.
 Hence, the children depend on the parents’
approval to do
anything.
 Can you think of another analogy that
would work for independent and dependent
clauses?
A related group of words with a
subject and predicate is called a
clause.
A complex sentence contains an
independent and dependent clause.
Independent clause

Native Americans lived on the island


until they were attacked.

Dependent clause
Here’s a trick!

 You can check to see if a clauses is


independent or dependent by using this
following trick:
 At the beginning of the clause in question,
add “It is possible that”
It’s possible that
 Example:
 Grew up in Palm Desert
 I am your 10th grade student this year at LQHS.
 Also to see what your personality was
 For example running, playing, jumping.

Are any of these independent clauses?


Write I or D for independent or
dependent clause.
 1. if you live on an island______
 2. the tides affect your life______
 3. the water level rises_____
 4. when the tide comes in_____
 5. much of the beach disappears under
water_____
 6. until the tide goes out_____
In the following sentences, identify the
independent and dependent clauses.
 Although it was located next to a school, the
Radiac Research Corporation was storing large
amounts of medical waste.
 Cleopatra lived in ancient Egypt, which she
ruled.
 When a crowd gathered for a public rally, the
teens told the people about Radiac.
 Billy fell in the sewer on a neighborhood street as
he was playing on a Saturday afternoon.
Furthermore,
 How do I punctuate two independent
clauses that are closely related?

 USE A SEMICOLON! Or a period


Independent Clause:
 I need new school clothes. I will go to the
mall.
 Because these sentences (independent
clauses) are closely related, they can be
joined with a semi-colon:
Sub verb sub verb verb

 I need new clothes ; I will go to the mall.


independent clause independent clause
If you start a sentence with a
dependent clause, use a comma
before the independent clause.
 USE A COMMA!
Because I don’t have a car, I can’t go
off campus for lunch today.
 ***If the dependent clause appears after
the independent clause, you don’t need any
punctuation! Whoo hoo!
I can’t go off campus today for lunch
because I don’t have a car.
 Whenever you begin a sentence with a
subordinating conjunction, use a comma.
sub verb sub verb
 My cell phone rang in class. I answered it.
independent clause independent clause

 Because my cell phone rang in class , I answered it.


dependent clause independent clause

 Last week’s sentence structure works here as well: My cell phone


rang in class; I answered it.
 Either way, rather than write two boring sentences punctuated with a
period, you can now choose two different ways to write this
sentence more effectively by using a more complex structure.
Tools you need to remember:
 It’s possible that…
Also, here are some words that
trigger the entrance of a
dependent clause:
 Because If
 When Though Since
 Unless Although
 Whenever After
As
 While
As if
 As long as Before
 As soon as So that
 In order that Until
TASK- what’s cooking?
 Write one sentence for each following sentence
recipe:
 Recipe #1: Two independent clauses closely
related
 Recipe #2: Complex sentence starting with a
dependent clause (use your list of trigger words)
 Recipe #3: Complex sentence ending with a
dependent clause.
 Finally, write an analogy for independent and
dependent clauses. Be sure to draw a picture to
go with it!