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- Is the human resources function of
identifying, attracting, hiring and
retaining people with the necessary
qualifications to fill the responsibilities
of current and future jobs in the
Management succession/replacement chart
- awareness of the management potential
within an organization can be accomplished
with the use of an inventory chart.
Non-managerial human resources
- the need for it may be ascertained by the use
of a general organization chart to identify
vacant job positions that need to be filled or
by direct reports from department heads or
 Recruitment – process of
identifying and attracting
people with necessary
 Selection – choosing who
to hire.
 Staffing steps include:
1) The identifying of jobs position vacancies, job
requirements, as well as work force requirements
2) Checking internal environment of the organization
for human.
3) External recruiting
4) Selecting those with essential qualifications.
5) Placing the selected applicant.
6) Promoting
7) Evaluating performance
8) Planning of employee’s career
9) Training of human resources
10) Compensating human resources
 Present and future needs for managers
and other human resources are affected
by both external and internal forces.
 The firm’s goal and objectives,
technology, the types of work that have
to be done, salary scales, and the kinds
of people employed by the company are
among the internal factors or forces that
affect staffing.
 In the even of a job opening,
administrators must be careful
when recruiting and choosing who
to bring into the organization.
 Recruitment may either be external
or internal.
sources are considered in the process of
locating potential individuals who
might want to join the organization and
encouraging them to apply for actual
anticipated job vacancies.
job vacancies can be done through
promotions or transfer of employees
who are already part of the
 External recruitment methods include:
Advertisements- through websites, newspapers, trade
journals, radio, televisions, billboard, posters, and e-
mails among others
Unsolicited applications- received by employers from
individuals who may or may not be qualified for the
job openings.
Internet recruiting- independent job boards on the web
commonly used by job seekers and recruiters to gather
and disseminate job opening information
Employee referrals- are recommendations from the
organization’s present employees who usually refer
friends and relatives who they think are qualified.
Executive search firms- also known as “head
hunters” help employers find the right person for
the job.
Educational institutions- good resources of young
applicants or new graduates who have formal
training but with very little work experience.
Professional associations- may offer placement
services to their members who seek employment.
Labor unions- possible sources of
applicants for clue collar and
professional jobs.
Public and private employment
agencies- may also be a good source of
applicants for different types of job
vacancies for they usually offer free
services while private ones charges fees
from both the job applicant and the
employers soliciting referrals from
1) Advertising and recruiting through the internet reach a
large number of possible applicants, thus, increasing the
possibility of being able to recruit applicants suited for
the job.
2) Applicants who submit applications and resumes
through their own initiative are believed to be better
potential employees because they are serious about
getting the job.
3) Employee referrals from outside sources are believed to
be high quality applicants because employees are
generally hesitant to recommend person who are not
qualified for the job openings
4) Executive search firms usually refer highly
qualified applicants from outside sources
because they make an effort to check
applicants qualification before
recommending them to client firms who
pay for their services.
5) Educational institutions know the
capabilities and qualifications of their
graduates, hence, increasing the chances of
their ability to refer qualified applicants
potential employers.
1) The cost and time required by external
recruitment are the typical disadvantages
of using this recruitment method.
2) The possibility of practicing bias or
entertaining self-serving motives in the
referral of friends and relatives by current
employees and in the recommendation of
private employment agencies of job
1) Less expenses are required for internal recruitment
advertising; news letters, bulletin boards, and other
forms of internal communication may disseminate
information to current employees interested to apply for
job openings.
2) Training and orientation of newly promoted or
transferred current employees are less expensive and do
not take too much time since they are already familiar
with company policies
3) The process of recruitment and selection is faster because
the candidate for transfer or promotion is already part of
the organization
1) The number of applicants to choose from
is limited
2) Favoritism may influence manager to
recommend a current employee for
promotion to a higher position.
3) It may result in jealousy among other
employees who were not considered for the
In many companies, selection is
continuous because of fast
turnover resulting in vacancies
that have to be filled. Another
reason for this is the review of
applicants on the waiting list.
1. Establishing the selection criteria
2. Requesting applicants to complete the application
3. Screening by listing applicants who seem to meet the
set criteria
4. Screening interview to identify more promising
5. Interview by the supervisor/manager or panel
6. Verifying information provided by the applicant
7. Requesting the applicant to undergo
psychological and physical
8. Informing the applicant that he or she
has been chosen for the position
applied for
 Structured interview – the interviewer asks
the applicant to answer a set of prepared
 Unstructured interview – the interviewer
has no interview guide.
 One-on-one interview – one interviewer is
 Panel interview – three to five interviewers
take turns in asking questions.
 Intelligence test – designed to measure
the applicant’s mental capacity.
 Proficiency and aptitude tests - test
his/her present skills and potential for
learning other skills
 Vocational tests – tests that show the
occupation best suited to an applicant
 Both training and development are essential
to achieve success in today’s organizations.
In order to have an edge their rival
organizations, managers must see to it that
their human resources have the necessary
knowledge and expertise; training and
development work toward this end by
providing continuous learning activities
and opportunities.
Must be done
systematically in order to
ascertain if there is need
for training
 Organization analyses include the
analyses of effects of downsizing,
branching out, conflicts with rival
companies, and others that may
require training or retaining
Person analysis –
determines who among
the employees need
training or retraining.
 This phase involves stating the
instructional objectives that
describe the knowledge, skills, and
attitudes that have to be acquired
or enhanced to be able to perform
Includes on-the-job training,
apprenticeship training,
classroom instruction, audio-
visual method, and e-
 Developing employees is a part of
an organization’s career
management program and its goal
is to match the individual’s
development needs with the needs
of the organization.
 Compensation/wages and
performance are related to each other
because the employees’ excellent or
poor performance also determines the
compensation given to them.
 It may be direct, indirect or
 Direct compensation – includes workers’
salaries, incentive pays, bonuses and commissions
 Indirect compensation – includes benefits given
by employers other than financial remunerations
 Nonfinancial compensation – includes
recognition programs, being assigned to do
rewarding jobs, or enjoying management support,
ideal work environment, and convenient work
 Worker compensation/wages had
tremendously changed due to
increased market competitions,
required skills from workers, and
changes in technology and also
organizations’ pay philosophies have
Compensation pay represents
a reward that and employee
receives for good
 Pay Equity – related to fairness; the Equity Theory is a
motivation theory focusing on employees’ response to
the pay that they receive and feeling that they receive
less or more than they deserve
 Expectancy Theory – another theory of motivation
which predict that employees are motivated to work
well because of the attractiveness of the rewards or
benefits that they may possibly receive from a job
 Piecework basis – when pay is computed according to
the number of units produced.
 Hourly basis – when pay is computed according to the
number of work hours rendered
 Daily basis – when pay is computed according to the
number of work days rendered
 Weekly basis – when pay is computed according to the
number of work weeks rendered
 Monthly basis – when pay is computed according to
the number of work months rendered
Compensation rates are
influenced by internal
and external factors
 Among the internal factors are the
organization’s compensation policies, the
importance of the job, the employees’
qualifications in meeting the job
requirements, and the employer’s financial
 External factors, on the other hand, include
local and global market condition, labor
supply, area/regional wage rates, cost of
living, collective bargaining agreements,
and national and international laws, among
 Administrative Purposes – fulfilled through
appraisal/evaluation programs that provide
information that may be used for compensation
decisions, promotions, transfers, and
 Developmental Purposes – fulfilled through
appraisal/evaluation programs that provide
information about employees’ performance and
their strengths and weaknesses that may be used
as basis for identifying their training development
 Trait methods – designed to find out if the employee
possesses important work characteristics
 Graphic rating scales – each characteristic to be
evaluated is represented by a scale on which the rater
indicates the degree to which an employee possesses
that characteristic
 Forced-choice method – requires the rater to choose
from two statements purposely designed to distinguish
between positive or negative performance
 Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) – a
behavioral approach to performance appraisal that
includes five to ten vertical scales, one for each
important strategy for doing the job and numbered
according to its importance
 Behavior observation scale (BOS) - a behavioral
approach to performance appraisal that measures the
frequency of observed behavior
 Inadequate orientation of the evaluatees regarding the
objectives of the program
 Incomplete cooperation of evaluatees
 Bias exhibited by evaluators;
 Inadequate time for answering the evaluation forms;
 Ambiguous language used in the evaluation
 Employee’s job description is not properly evaluated by
the evaluation questionnaire used;
 Inflated ratings resulting from evaluator’s avoidance of
giving low scores
 Evaluator’s appraisal is focused on the personality of
the evaluatee and not his or her performance;
 Unhealthy personality of the evaluator
 Evaluator may be influenced by organizational politics
 This applies to all phases of work
activities in organizations, and
managers, to be effective, must be
able to encourage good employee
relations among all human
resources under his or her care.
 Social support is the sum total of
perceived assistance that may result
from effective social employee
 The quantity and quality of an
employee’s relationship with others
determines social support.
 Anti-social personality
 Lack of trust in others
 Selfish attitudes
 Lack of good self-esteem
 Not a team player
 Being conceited
 Cultural/ Sub cultural differences
 Lack of cooperation
 Communication problems
 Lack of concern for others’ welfare
 Develop a healthy personality to overcome negative
attitudes and behavior
 Find time to socialize with co-workers
 Overcome tendencies of being too dependent on
electronic gadgets
 Develop good communication skills and be open to
others’ opinions
 Minimize culutural/ sub cultural tension
 It is a series of actions initiated by an
employee groups toward an end
 Employees unionize because of
financial needs, unfair management
practices, or social and leadership
 Financial needs – complaints regarding wages or
salaries and benefits given to them by the
 Unfair management practices – perceptions of
employees regarding unfair or biased managerial
 Social and Leadership concerns – some join unions for
the satisfaction of their need for affiliation with a
group and for the prestige associated with co-workers
recognition of one’s leadership qualities
 Step 1. Employee/union contact
 Step 2. Initial organizational meeting
 Step 3. Formation of in-house organizing committee
 Step 4. If a sufficient number of employees support the
union movement the organizer request for a
representation election or certification election
 Step 5. End of union organizing
 Prepare for negotiations – data to support bargaining
proposals are collected and arranged in an orderly
manner by both parties--- the union and the
employer’s group
 Develop strategies – management proposals are
developed and limits of concessions are determined,
while also considering the union’s goal and their
possible strike plans
 Conduct negotiations – this consists of bargaining,
analyzing proposals, resolving issues related to the
proposals, and remembering to stay within their
respective bargaining zone
 Formalize agreement – after the negotiation process,
the union and management groups have to formalize
their agreement.
 Organizations offer competitive
reward system to attract
knowledgeable and skilled people
and to keep them motivated and
satisfied once they are employed in
their firm.
 Pay / salary – financial numeration given in exchange
for work performance that will help the organization
attain goals
 Benefits – indirect forms of compensation given to the
employees for the purpose of improving quality of
their work and personal lives
 Incentives – rewards that based upon a pay-for-
performance philosophy; it establishes a baseline
performance level that employees or group of
employees must reach in order to be given such reward
or payment
 Stock options are plans that grant employees the right
to buy a specific number of share of the organization’s
stock at a guaranteed price during a selected period of
 Award – may be given to individual employees or
group for meritorious service or outstanding
 Praise – intrinsic reward given by superiors to their
subordinates when they express oral or verbal
appreciation for excellent job performance