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The Anti-Friar Ma

nifesto of 1888
Beltran | Laohoo | Pangan | Sayson | Yeun
g
Contents
Background of the author
Historical background of the document
Analysis of the important historical information found
in the document
Contribution & relevance of the document in understa
nding the grand narrative of Phil. history
Relevance of the document
Background of the Authors (believed to have been a
ny of the three
Marcelo H. Del Pilar
● Born in Kupang, Bulacan on August
30, 1850
● Pen name: Plaridel
● Studied law at the University of Sant
o Tomas and graduated in 1880
● One of the greatest propagandists w
ho sought Philippine freedom
Founded the Diariong Tagalog in 1882
Marcelo H. Del Pilar
Believed to have written the Anti-Friar
Manifesto of 1888
Fled to Spain in 1888 due to persecuti
on
Succeeded Graciano Lopez Jaena as
editor of the La Solidaridad in Spain
Died on July 4, 1896 in Barcelona, Sp
ain
Notable Works
Dasalan at Tocsohan (Prayers and Mockeries, 188
8)
Ang Cadaquilaan nang Dios (The Greatness of Go
d, 1888)
La Frailocracia Filipina (Frailocracy in the Philippin
es, 1889)
Sagot ng Espana sa Hibic ng Filipinas (Spain’s Re
ply to the Cry of the Philippines, 1889)
Jose A. Ramos
a London educated patriot, businessman, and Mas
on
Assisted in the Anti-Friar Manifesto
One of the “real author” that the Spanish Authoritie
s suspected
His printing business played an important role in th
e propaganda movement of the Philippine Revolu
tion
Doroteo Cortez
A Mestizo
A Manileño lawyer
Another one of the “real author” that the Spanish A
uthorities suspected
Historical Background of the Document
Historical Background of the Docume
nt
March 1, 1888
Signed by 800 Filipino patriots
Demonstrators - merchants, industrialists, professionals, landlords
, and laborers
Led by Doroteo Cortez, a Manileño lawyer
Submitted to the office of Don Jose Centeno, a liberal Spanish ge
ologist and acting Civil Governor of Manila Province
Addressed to Queen Regent Maria Cristina
Patriots were arrested and put in prison, charged with disturbance
of public peace and sedition
Reform Movement
Inspired by the death of the GOMBURZA
Aim is to seek reforms and inform Spain of the abuses of its colonial
government
Goals:
Recognition of the Philippines as a province of Spain
Equal status for both Filipinos and Spaniards
Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes
Secularization of Philippine parishes
Recognition of human rights
Notable members: Dr. Jose Rizal, Graciano Lopez Jaena, and Marcel
o H. del Pilar
Secularization of Philippine Parishe
s
Two kinds of priests:
Regular
Belongs to religious orders (e.g. Franciscans, Augustinians, Domini
cans)
Main task was to spread Christianity
Secular
Did not belong to religious orders
Trained to run parishes and were under the bishop
Secularization - replacement of the friars, who came excl
usively from Spain, with Filipino priests ordained by the
bishop
Secularization of Philippine Parishe
s
Conflict began when bishops insisted on visiting parishes ru
n by regular priests
In 1774, Archbishop Basilio Santa Justa assigned secular pr
iests to the parishes and approved the resignation of regul
ar priests
In the same year, a royal decree was issued which provided
the secularization of parishes
Regulars resented the move saying that Filipinos were unfit,
brown skinned, had lack of education and experience
Analysis of the important historical information fo
und in the document
Purpose of the Document
Title: Viva España! Viva el Rey! Viva el Ejercito! Fuero l
os Frailes! (Long live Spain! Long live the King! Long l
ive the Army! Down with the Friars!)
Address the complaints of the Filipino people against th
e friars, particularly Archbishop Pedro Payo, whose m
onastic power is the source of evils in the country
Beg ruling queen to expel these friars from the Philippin
es
Archbishop Pedro Payo
Archbishop of Manila from 187
6-1889
Dominican Order
Known to be meticulous in eccl
esiastical administration
Greatest achievement: Adornm
ent and improvement of Manil
a Cathedral
Acts of Friars
Did not give importance to customs
Not paying tribute of respect and love to the anniversary of
the late Alfonso XII
The festival of San Andres - commemorates an achieveme
nt of both Spaniards and the Filipinos, being the first man
ifestation of the fused interests of both countries - should
be confined to the narrow space of Intramuros
Acts of Friars
Punished anyone who tried to put order to the country
Diego Salcedo
Governor of the Islands
Proposed to systematize the financial resources of the Philippine admini
stration
Chained and taken as a prisoner
Fernando de Bustamante
Improved Zamboanga
Tried to clean and invigorate official institutions
Friars organized a crusade against him, and stabbed him
Archbishop of Manila Basilio Sancho
Tried to enforce in his diocese the decrees of the Council of Trent, the p
apal bulls, and the royal decrees of the Spanish monarchy
Acts of Friars
Punish Indios who speak in Spanish
Friars persecute the study of the official language
Christian doctrine is taught in the country’s dialect
Gives a different sense from the Spanish catechisms
Doctrine translated in the native language shows the divine superior
ity of the friars
Confiteor (Spanish) - “... And to thee father that you may pray for me to God.
Amen.”
Confiteor (Filipino translated to English) - “... and thou father, as you are the
substitute of God on earth, absolve me from my sins and punish me. Amen
Jesus.”
Separatist Aspiration
Aspiration to be emancipated from Spain
Deemed to be offensive and is against the best interests
of the Filipino People
Diversity in the Philippines (Diversity of Regional Dialect),
requires the unifying bond of Spain
“for the Filipinos would be the idea of suicide”
Separatist Aspiration
Spain is the anchor of Salvation of the Filipino People
The friar pushes towards the Separatist Aspiration to des
peration
Secular Clergy
Led by Dr. Jose Burgos
upheld the Council of Trent that decreed that friars are ab
solutely incapable of filling parish curacies
Discussed the expiration of the privilege conceded by Piu
s V and other popes to the friars to administer parishes t
emporarily and while a shortage of secular clergy made
it necessary
Cavite Mutiny
One of the most important event as to the number of victi
ms from the most select classes of society
Soldier mutinied in the fort, while also having the vice-gov
ernor for the rebellion
Bells of the churches of St. Dominic, St. Augustine, and ot
hers were rung
They were tried by a military court (the incident was only
a case of military insubordination, and was not consider
ed as a political crime)
Friar Opposition
The Friars undertook a vigorous campaign to
oppose this claim
Friars accuse native clergy of being unqualifie
d for the ministry, belittling their intellectual a
bility
Friar is a Necessity
Their opposition argued that it is insufficient to
uphold the privilege of the regulars
Friars popularized the idea that having friars is
a necessity
Not for Catholic Faith nor preaching the Gosp
el, but for maintenance of national integrity
Sin of Friars
Religious life
Identified devotion with material objects, used these as merchandise, fostere
d fanatiscm
Result: Obscuring the idea of God in the uneducated mind of the masses
Economic life
Acquired rich estates and leased them whose fee rises progressively in direc
t proportion to the improvement the tenant makes
Result: Discourages agriculture, basis of Philippine wealth
Political life
Avoid and obstruct any understanding between the rulers and the rules
Result: To make themselves indispensable to the government
Contribution & Relevance of the Document in Understandin
g the Grand Narrative of Philippine History
Contribution & Relevance of the Document in Understand
ing the Grand Narrative of Philippine History

Exposed the abuses of the Friars


Showed the struggle of the secular priests for represent
ation in parishes
Opposed the teaching of the Spanish language to the I
ndios
Relevance of the Document
Relevance Of The Document
Shows that Filipinos weren’t always angry towards the Sp
aniards.
A good example of what unison amongst citizens can brin
g.
Allows people to look into the past and see how using you
r rights can benefit a nation.
An important piece of history due to it being a prime exam
ple of the Filipino’s many attempts to change the way th
e Spaniards treated them.
References
Zaide, G. F. and Zaide, S. M. (1990). Documentary
Sources of Philippine History (Volume 7). Metro
Manila: National Book Store Inc.
Philippine-history.org. (2005). Gomburza and the pr
opaganda movement. Retrieved from http://www.
philippine-history.org/gomburza.htm