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Group 12
Raveena | Tharun | Karthik | Mrinal | Neeraj | Garvika
Community Reserves
• Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act of 2002
• Section 36A – Conservation Reserve
• Area owned by the government
• Section 36C – Community Reserve
• Private or Community land
• Usually, they act as buffer zones
• Introduced due to reduced protection as a
result of private ownership of land and land use
• Administration through local people and local
• Causes privately held land to be given
• Tiruvidaimarudur Conservation Reserve is the
first Conservation Reserve
Kadalundi – Vallikkunnu Community Reserve (KVCR)
• Located in the western side of Northern Kerala, in
Kozhikode and Malappuram districts on the river
mouth of Kadalundipuzha
• Total extent is 153.84 ha
• 21.22 ha has the status of reserved forests
• Rest are private lands
• Government land under the Divisional Forest
Officer of Kozhikode Forest Division

Area under panchayat

75% Vallikunnu
Significance of KVCR
• Globally, it is part of an important bird area listed by IBCN
and qualified to be declared as a Ramsar site
• Unique mangrove vegetation and avifauna
• High potential for eco-development and ecotourism
• Home to variety of rare species, some of which are
categorized as “Vulnerable” under the Red List Category of
• Unique habitat both for the human beings and other living
• Major nursery grounds for the juveniles of fish species
• Provide good foraging ground for many species of migratory
shore birds
• Provide suitable habitat for mammals like otters, jackals and
common mongoose
• Potential for sustainable tapping of natural resources
including organic & ecofriendly agricultural practices
Island Tourism

Kadalundi Bird Sanctuary

Kadalundi Vallikkunnu
Community Reserve

Which are the institutions that are present in KVCR?

How are the property rights defined in KVCR?

How were the transaction costs addressed?

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?


Which are the institutions that are present in KVCR?

How are the property rights defined in KVCR?

How were the transaction costs addressed?

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

Community Reserve Management Committee

Community Reserve

3 representatives 2 representatives
Vallikkunnu Gram Panchayat Kadalundi Gram Panchayat

• Constituted by Government for management,

conservation and maintenance of community reserve

• Construction and maintenance of bridge, local roads

connecting Community Reserve area
• Supply of drinking water to the inhabitants affected by
severe water scarcity
• Construction of side walls along the river bank to
• Creation of bunds to reduce the salt water intrusion in protect from land slides with the cooperation of the
to the river Irrigation Department
Which are the institutions that are present in KVCR?
Forest Department In conversation with Ms.
Ameena, Forest Department
Divisional Forest Officer & Forest Range Officer

Involved in the protection and conservation activities of

the Community Reserve

Declaration of 21.22 ha of mangrove area as Reserved


Established mangrove nurseries and planted seedlings in

the degraded river banks and mangrove patches

Initiated Turtle conservation programme in 1999 for

conservation by the collection of turtle eggs, hatching,
rearing and releasing the young ones back to the sea

Conducting awareness camps, medical camps, workshops,

bird census, bird watching camps etc.

Which are the institutions that are present in KVCR?

Other Departments
• CMFRI (Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute):
Promotes mussel and prawns cultivation and provide
technical support to the farmers

• Fisheries Department : Provides financial support for

procuring fishing instruments and impart training to
the fishermen community

• DTPC(District Tourism Promotion Councils): Promotes

eco tourism activities in the Community Reserve area

• Agricultural Department: Assistance and guidance to

the agricultural and horticultural activities. The
activities include distribution of vegetable seeds,
supply of coconut seedlings and fertilizer, supply of
poultry etc.

• Irrigation Department: Side wall protection, bund

construction and supply of drinking water

Which are the institutions that are present in KVCR?

Local Reserve Development Committees
• For implementing Eco development/ Participatory Forest Management
initiatives, 5 Local Reserve Development Committees (LRDC) have been
formed in the KVCR
• Dependent communities in the zone of influence of KVCR
• Eco development activities focus on the overall livelihood of the community
and ensuing the sustainable management of the natural resources like
mangroves, fisheries etc.
• Earlier, the reserve area was used for :
• Walkways and for open air defecation
• Mangroves were used as green manure
• For fishing, coir retting, sand mining, transportation and shell mining
• Major resources for community reserve: sand, fish, mussel, oyster, crab,
prawn, etc.
• At present the reserve land is used for
• fishing
• tourism
• mussel culture
• irrigation
• water transportation

Which are the institutions that are present in KVCR?


Which are the institutions that are present in KVCR?

How are the property rights defined in KVCR?

How were the transaction costs addressed?

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

• Communities were using the open land for
livelihood purposes like :
• coir retting
• sand mining
• fishing etc.
• These activities led to
• destruction and degradation of
• pollution
• uncontrolled sand mining
• shrinkage of mud flats
• erosion of river bank
• over-exploitation of aquatic flora and
How are the property rights defined in KVCR?
• Mangroves Protection initiated by Forest department since 1997

• Since 1999 onwards, all the activities related to protection and enhancement of
biodiversity carried out by Forest Department

• Efforts were strengthened after the declaration of Community Reserve

• The Common Property Resources of Kadalundi were automatically transferred to the

jurisdiction of the Panchayaths, which were continuously enjoyed by inhabitants

• With the enactment of Environmental (Protection) Act 1986 and other conservation
oriented Acts, active involvement of Forest Department also came into picture for
protection of the mangrove forests

• Thus, people of Kadalundi were kept away from unsustainable activities since 1997

• Thus, area became a good mangrove forest managed by Kerala Forest Department.

• The Panchayath also imposed restrictions on collection of natural resources like sand.

How are the property rights defined in KVCR?


Which are the institutions that are present in KVCR?

How are the property rights defined in KVCR?

How were the transaction costs addressed?

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

Transaction Cost between the Stakeholders
Idea of Eco-tourism
• Eco-tourism in KVCR was seriously considered in 2007 by
forest minister Binoy Visvam; locals were interested
• Eventually, the government changed; new government
seemed uninterested, which increased the transaction costs
• Renewed efforts began in 2012 when K Raju became the
forest minister, who was determined to make the idea a
• K Raju empowered the community by decentralizing the
process and reducing bureaucracy
• K Raju empowered the CRMC and gave more autonomy to
the Kadalundi and Vallikkunnu panchayats
• Election and appointment processes to the panchayats and
CRMC were streamlined and made more transparent
• SHGs were constituted which were driven by the
community members
• Build responsibility for governing the common resource in
nested tiers from the lowest level up to the entire
interconnected system: Elinor Ostrom’s principle applied
here to lower the transaction cost

How were the transaction costs addressed?

Transaction Cost between the Stakeholders
Responsible Tourism
• The local people at KVCR are interested in the idea of eco-
tourism, were afraid that the influx of businessmen and traders
would destroy their culture and traditions, and would disturb
their way of living
• Due to these issues, it became difficult for the panchayats and
the government to implement schemes for the development of
• As a solution, government notified 131 Ha out of about 153 Ha
of land under the local community
• More than 130 Ha of KVCR land is under private and common
property regime, and there are various informal institutions to
take decisions
• The local people decided that they did not want rampant
commercialization and came up with plan for responsible
tourism by which only such activities were to take place that
were sustainable
• Make sure the rule-making rights of community members are
respected by outside authorities: Elinor Ostrom’s principle
which helped in lowering transaction cost in this case

How were the transaction costs addressed?

Transaction Cost between the Stakeholders
Restriction on Locals
• Three islands in KVCR: Balathuruthu (110 families), CeePee
thuruthu (30 families), and Cheriya thuruthu/Kakkathuruthu
(65 families); people along the boundaries within 200 m of
KVCR (1000 families)
• These people have traditionally utilized open lands in KVCR for
livelihood purposes like coir retting, fishing, sand mining, etc.
• Eventually, the common property resources were transferred to
the panchayats, who leased it out for coir retting and coconut
cultivation for commercial uses under the Panchayati Raj Act
• Local people were marginalized and many of them lost their
livelihood due to these measures, which led to dissatisfaction
• This adversely affected the functioning of panchayats and
• the government developed Local Reserve Development
Committees to encourage the people to participate in the
decision making activities
• Ensure that those affected by the rules can participate in
modifying the rules: By following this principle by Elinor
Ostrom, transaction costs could be reduced

How were the transaction costs addressed?


Which are the institutions that are present in KVCR?

How are the property rights defined in KVCR?

How were the transaction costs addressed?

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

General problems affecting KVCR

Scarcity of drinking water due to saline water

Land and water pollution due to disposable of

wastes including butchery items

Improper waste management – no proper garbage

collection, and plastic waste from tourists

Unemployment and lack of job orientation facilities

– small scale industries deal with fishermen for fish
pickle – did not show up

Soil not favorable for fruits and vegetable plantations

in households

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

General problems affecting KVCR

Destruction and degradation of Mangroves – affects

many species of migratory birds and mammals as
they provide suitable habitat for mammals

Uncontrolled Sand Mining – Fauna and Flora are

affected by collection of sand

Human-Wildlife Conflict - Wild animals such as

fishing cat, jackal and otter are reported to be
involved in the conflict by attacking the pet animals

Lack of primary health care and education facilities –

shortage of transport facilities – absence of street

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?


Kadalundi estuary Bird sanctuary

06 01

Back waters Islets

05 02

04 03
Mud flats Mangroves

How can KVCR move towards sustainability? 27

Benefits from ecotourism

Allocation of funds generated in administration

(Maintenance of infrastructure, buildings, etc.)

Employment and income generation – Self employment,

scientific retting – value addition, agricultural practices, etc.

Development of land, pathway, and side walkers for

people who depend on country boat to commute at three
islands - Balathiruthi, CP thiruthi, and Kakkathiruthi that
enclose KVCR

Nature park, watch tower and pathways for children and

adults to spend their leisure time and enhance aesthetic

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

Hindrances in achieving ecotourism

At present, sufficient infrastructure facilities are not

available to upgrade the area

No information, interpretation and training center

Lack of conveyance both on land and in water is

another serious issue

Non-availability of personnel with scientific

background for the proper interpretation and
conservation education

Lack of properly trained tourist guides to explain the

different aspects of the Community Reserve

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

Sand Dunes of Mozambique
Towards Sustainable Development

• Freshwater lagoons of Mozambique are low lying

areas which get easily inundated by sea water
• This would contaminate the fresh water aquifers
and would adversely impact the marine life
• Unsustainable tourism aggravated the situation
• Sand dunes were used as the solution
• Sand dunes are catchment areas for fresh water,
supply construction sand, grounds for livestock
grazing, planting trees, and fish farming
• Government and people are focusing on preserving
the sand dunes
• Sand dunes provide a pleasant sandy shore for
recreation and protect the mainland from the sea
• Sand dunes can be leveraged for responsible
• There could be a lesson in this for KVCR

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?




How can KVCR move towards sustainability?
 Economic Sustainability:
 Eco-tourism : One of the best bird sanctuaries in the country, boat rides. Estimated tourists of
about 15,000 every year which is a major source of income and employment.

 Restaurants on Islands for tourists: Set up by the local residents to serve home made food.

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

 Societal Sustainability:
 “Vavulsavam” is one of the most colourful festivals in Kerala. The attraction of the festival is the
message of social harmony it sends out. It is the celebration by the whole people of Kadalundi
region. It is celebrated during Diwali as a curtain raiser to welcome the migratory birds.

 This community close-work breaks all the boundaries of cast, creed and other
impervious systems which were prominent in olden days. It is amazing fact that this
tradition of harmony for the goddess is started long ago, then Kerala was governed
by ‘savarnar’ in the aspect of Varna System, that is, in the present-day context, the
forward class. This is one of the examples of Social Capital.
 Organised by Tourism Department, district administration and local Panchayat

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

 Environmental Sustainability:
Organic Farming:
• Coconut cultivation is the predominant agriculture practice in the Community
Reserve area. The cultivation of most other agricultural crops is not successful
due to peculiar estuarine soil nature.
• Collaborate with Agriculture Department, Kerala Agricultural University and other
institutes to conduct research on the agriculture practices
• Introduce and promote organic farming and medicinal plants in the community
reserve area.
• The CRMC shall ensure value addition and marketing of medicinal plants/products.

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

 Environmental Sustainability:
• Utilisation of Oyster shells which is used for various purpose including selling it in the
international market. An example of Sensible Sustainability.

• Fish Farming is practiced here after seeing a decline in the aquatic life in the
estuary close by due to increasing industrial activities.

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

How can KVCR move towards Sustainability?
Protection of Mangroves And Associated Flora and Fauna
Presently no mangrove species are included in the Schedule VI of
Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, which puts the natural habitat of
flora and fauna at Kadalundi in danger – hence, the mangrove trees
must be brought under the ambit of this act soon

Although all mangrove areas are deemed to be notified areas as per

the Kerala Promotion of Tree Growth in Non-Forest Areas Act, no
permission is required for cutting any mangrove species in a private
land having an extent of 1.00 acre or less – this needs to change
because most of the land in KVCR is outside the purview of this act

Elinor Ostrom’s Principle: Define Clear Group Boundaries

CRMC must demarcate boundaries of the existing mangrove forests,
ensure there is no destruction of mangroves, ensure no
developmental activity shall be carried out in the notified region,
ensure there is no poaching, and restore degraded mangroves

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

How can KVCR move towards Sustainability?

Pollution Control
There isn’t a sufficient number of garbage bins in the reserve, which
causes a lot of waste getting dumped into the water; CRMC should:
• Install waste bins all over the reserve; segregate dry and wet waste
• Initiate steps to install biogas plants in households
• Compost toilets (dry toilets) should be used on these islands

Sustainable Agricultural Activities

Coconut cultivation is the predominant agriculture practice in the

KVCR; cultivation of most other agricultural crops is not successful due
to peculiar estuarine soil nature
• There is not much collaboration with agriculture experts – CRMC
should collaborate with Agriculture Department, Kerala
Agricultural University and conduct research on the agriculture
practices and identify the crop varieties suitable to the locality

How can KVCR move towards sustainability?

Water Desalination in Singapore
How Singapore did it

• In the quest to find the solution to water problems in Kadalundi, we

will take up the case of water desalination in Singapore
• Singapore is a fresh water scarce country – the country does not have
natural lakes, large rivers or substantial groundwater resources for
fresh water supply
• It used to either source water from Malaysia or collect rainwater
• NEWater or reclaimed water can meet up to 30% of Singapore's
current water consumption
• Apart from reclaimed water, Singapore introduced desalinated water
with the construction of two desalination plants that could meet up
to 25% of the water consumption in Singapore
• Desalinated water is produced from pre-treated seawater through
the process of reverse osmosis using semi-permeable membranes
• The RO membrane processes use semipermeable membranes and
applied pressure (on the membrane feed side) to preferentially
induce water permeation through the membrane while rejecting salts
• Although a similar system would be implausible in the case of KVCR,
smaller models of water desalination plants cold be installed as a
pilot to assess the feasibility
Water Desalination in Singapore
Punjab Karnataka Meghalaya
Total no. of community reserves 2 1 41
Total area (in 16.07 1.5 39.96
Keshopur-Chhamb Community Kokkare Bellur Community •Meghalaya has the highest
Reserve Reserve number of community reserves
•Designated as India’s first •WWF in collaboration with in India.
community reserve, declared in HSBC’s Water Programme •As most of the forests of
Total area June 2007 launched the revamped KB Meghalaya are owned by the
•Since the entire community Interpretation Centre communities, majority of these
reserve is on two marshes owned •A step towards developing a community reserves have been
by five village panchayats, all the sustainable community-centric established in communal forests
villages are represented by one eco-tourism model representing natural ecosystems
nominee – a range officer from •Rejuvenated smaller wetlands belonging to the category of
the forest department who is around the village to attract more sacred groves and protected
designated as the Member birds, augment the groundwater forests
Secretary. •Gram Panchayat & local
•Apart from serving as wintering community focus on preservation
ground for various migratory & maintenance of wetlands by
birds, the wetland is used for encouraging fisciculture &
farming (rice). sustainable agricultural practices
•By co-opting local village
panchayats for the conservation
of this bird habitat, the Keshopur
Community Reserve holds the
distinction of being the first of its
kind in India.
• Second-largest area of Amazon rainforest within its • At the same time, value chains of forest and fishery
borders products are optimised to improve income and
• Encroachment for agriculture, illegal logging and the employment opportunities
impact of climate change • This has resulted in improved cooperation between
• Deforestation has led to 47% of Peru's CO2 emissions various institutions
• 8 community reserves cover around 2 million hectares • Obligation on the local and regional governments to
or 13% of the national system of conservation areas shoulder part of the responsibility of environmental
• People’s lack of management skills of reserves is sustainability
complemented by many non-governmental • KVCR can borrow best practices from Peru
organisations – a fine example of collaboration between
civil society and local people for the cause of Eg. Yanesha community reserve was created to preserve the
environment wild fauna for the benefit of native communities living in
• The objective is to protect biodiversity and manage it the area. This area of the whole reserve is part of the
sustainably system of protection of the Valley of Palcazú together with
• National Service of Natural Protected Areas (SERNANP) the National Park of Yanachaga - Chemillen and the
- a government body - and the indigenous people have protected forest of San Matías - San Carlos where the native
joined hands communities of Amuesha can utilize the resources of the
• Organisational and working structures are strengthened; area
participation mechanisms are set up, and conditions are
created for transparent cooperation by way of
• Traditional, cultural knowledge is used in school lessons
to strengthen the indigenous identity
Community Reserves of Peru

Community Reserves (Yanesha and El Sira)

Yanachaga-Chemillén National Park
Protected Forest (San Matías-San Carlos)
Valley of Palcazú

Mr. Sasindran – Committee Member

Ms. Shylaja – Kadalundi Block Member
Ms. Sreekala – Responsible Tourism District Member Madhu
Mr. Sivadasan – Chairman (Section Forest Officer)
Ms. Ameena – Office Clerk All the residents of the
Mr. K.K. Sunil Kumar
Professor Kulbhushan Balooni Divisional Forest Officer, Kozhikode Division Shijin, our taxi driver