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 Born in Mundare, Alberta (1925)
 Graduated at University of
Columbia with Bolocan Award
in Psychology in 1949
 Master’s Degree at Iowa in 1951
 PhD in Clinical Psychology in
 Works at Stanford University
 Dr. Bandura was named the most influential
psychologist of all time
 His theories gave major contribution to the
field of psychology, psychotherapy, and
 He was elected president of the American
Psychological Association (APA) in 1974
 He was awarded by APA for his distinguished
scientific contributions to psychology.
 In 2015, he was awarded the National Medal
of Science by President Barack Obama
Observational Learning: The Bobo Doll
 This experiment has proven right the
hypothesis that social modeling is a
very effective way of learning.
 Bandura’s Social Cognitive theory
states that people are active
participants in their environment and
are not simply shaped by
Summary Of Self Efficacy Theory
Weibell (2011) summarized Albert Bandura’s self-efficacy
“ Self- Efficacy theory is based on the assumption
that psychological procedures serve as a means
of creating and strengthening expectations of
personal efficacy.”
 According to Weibell (2011), outcome
expectancy is “a person’s estimate that a given
behavior will lead to certain outcome”
 Anefficacy expectation is “the conviction that
one can successfully execute the behavior
required to produce the outcomes.”

 Self-efficacytypically comes into play when

there is an actual or perceived threat to one’s
personal safety, or one’s ability to deal with
potentially aversive events.

 Increasing a person’s self-efficacy increases their

ability to deal with a potentially averse situation.
He identified acts of people with “high assurance in their
capabilities,” such as:

1. Approach difficult task as challenges to be

2. Set challenging goals and maintain strong
commitment to them;
3. Heighten or sustain efforts in the face of failures or
4. Attribute to insufficient effort or deficient
knowledge and skills which are acquirable;
5. Approach threatening situations with
assurance that they can exercise control
over them
In contrast, people “who doubt their capabilities”:
1. Shy away from task they view as personal
2. Have low aspirations and weak commitment to
goals they choose to pursue;
3. Dwell on personal deficiencies, obstacles they
will encounter, and all kinds of adverse
outcomes, rather than concentrating on how to
perform successfully;
3. Slacken their efforts and give up quickly in the
face of difficulties;

4. Are slow to recover their sense of efficacy

following failures or setbacks;

5. Fall easy victim to stress and depression.

Dr. Bandura described four main sources of
influence by which a person’s self-efficacy is
developed and maintain. These are:
1. Performance accomplishments or mastery
2. Vicarious experiences;
3. Verbal or social persuasion; and
4. Physiological (somatic and emotional)
 “mastery experiences” or “personal
performance accomplishments” are the most
effective ways to create a strong sense of
 Vicarious experiences through observance of
social models also influence one’s perception
of self-efficacy.
 The most important factor that determines the
strength of influence of an observed success or
failure on one’s own self-efficacy is the degree of
similarity between the observer and the model .
Carlos S. Dweck’s
Fixed and Growth
Mindset Theory
Carlos S. Dweck
•Born on October 17, 1946
•Mindset: The New Psychology of Success
•Graduated from Bernard College in 1967
Fixed and Growth Mindset
•Mindset: The New Psychology of Success published in
•" People who believe that success is based on their innate
abilities have a "fixed" theory of intelligence, and goes
under fixed mindset.“
•"People who believe that success is based on hard
working, learning, training, and perseverance have growth
theory of intelligence, which goes under growth mindset."
Edwin A. Locke
Daniel John Ibit
Edwin A. Locke
 Born on January 5 1938
 The author/editor of 12 books including:
 The Selfish Path to Romance: How to Love
with Passion and Reason
 Study Methods and Study Motivation
 Goal setting: A Motivation Technique That
 A Theory of Goal Setting and Task
Edwin A. Locke
 New Developments in Goal Setting and Task
 Handbook of Principles of Organization
 The Prime Movers: Traits of the Great Wealth
 Postmodernism and Management: Pros,
Cons and the Alternative

Edwin A. Locke's Goal
Setting Theory
Kier Caesar Sebastian
Goal Setting Theory
 First studied by Dr. Locke in the middle of
 "Motivation Through Conscious Goal
Setting" (1996)
 The basic contents of goal setting theory
are summarized in terms of 14 categories
of findings discussed in the article.
Goal Setting Theory
 Locke first described that the
approach of goal setting theory is
based on what Aristotle called final
causality which means that action
caused by a purpose.


Goal Attributes
 Goals have both an internal and an
external aspect.
 Internally, they are ideas; externally, they
refer to the object or condition sought.
 Two broad attributes of goals are content
and intensity.

Goal Attributes
 Qualitatively, the content of a goal is
whatever the person is seeking.
 Quantitatively, two attributes of content,
difficulty, and specificity, have been

“Motivation Through Conscious Goal Setting”

Research Findings
1. The more difficult the goal, the greater
the achievement.
2. The more specific or explicit goal, the
more precisely performance is regulated.
3. Goals that are both specific and difficult
lead to the highest performance.

Research Findings
4. Commitment to goals is most critical when
goals are specific and difficult.
5. High commitment to goals is attained when:
a. the individual is convinced that the goal is
b. the individual is convinced that the goal is

Research Findings
6. In addition to having a direct effect on
performance, self-efficacy influences:
a. the difficulty level of the goal chosen or
b. commitment to goals;
c. the response to negative feedback or
d. the choice or task strategies.

Research Findings
7. Goal setting is most effective when there is
feedback that shows progress in relation to the
8. Goal setting mediates the effect of knowledge
of past performance on subsequent

Research Findings
9. Goals affect performance by affecting the
direction of action, the degree of effort
exerted, and the persistence of action over
10. Goals stimulate planning in general.

Research Findings(Erika Faye Romero)
11. When people strive for goals on complex tasks,
they are least effective in discovering suitable
task strategies if:
a. they have no prior experience or training
on the task;
b. there is high pressure to perform well; and
c. there is high time pressure.

Research Findings
12. Goals, in combination with self-efficacy,
mediate or partially mediate the effects of
several personality traits and incentives on
13. Goals and goal-related mechanisms can be
trained and/or adopted in the absence of
training for the purpose of self-regulation.

Research Findings
14. Goals serve as standards of self-satisfaction,
with harder goals demanding higher
accomplishment in order to attain self-
satisfaction than easy goals.

Stress and Human

Caused by
or results in
Caused by pleasant
or results in Stimuli

response to

Types of Stress
(AIS, 2017)
•has negative
connotations •the body •has positive
•divorce, undergoes connotations
punishment, responses to •marriage,
injury, negative various promotion, baby,
feelings, positive or winning money,
financial stimuli
new friends and
problems, and acting upon graduation
work difficulties it

Alarm Stage
• represents a mobilization of the body’s
defensive forces

Stage of Resistance
• body becomes adaptive to the
challenge and even begins to resist it

Exhaustion Stage
• body dies because it has used up its
resources of adaptation energy
Stress Diseases
They are maladies caused principally by errors in the
body’s general adaptation process.
The biggest problem is an absolute excess, deficiency, or
disequilibrium in the amount of adaptive hormones.
Corticoids, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), and
growth hormones are produced during stress.
If stress is induced chronically, our defense response
lowers its resistance.
“Understanding Stress Response” of the Health
Journal (2017) on chronic stress and human body

“Chronic stress is unpleasant, even when it is transient. A

stressful situation- whether something environmental, such as
looming work deadline, or psychological, such as persistent
worry about losing a job- can trigger a cascade of stress
hormones that produce well-orchestrated physiological
changes. A stressful incident can make the heart pound and
breathing quicken. Muscles tense and beads of sweat
Stress Response

The combination of reactions to stress is also

known as the “fight-or-flight” response.
The sequence of hormonal changes and
physiological responses helps someone to
fight the threat off or flee to safety.
Stress Response

Research suggests that chronic stress

contributes to high blood pressure, promotes
the formation of artery-clogging deposits,
and causes brain changes.
Chronic stress may also contribute to
Stress response begins in the brain.
Stress Response Hypothalamus Cerebral Cortex

On the Brain
Amygdala contributes
to emotional processing,
sends a distress signal to
the hypothalamus
(command center). It
communicates with the
rest of the body through
the nervous system so
the person can fight or
flee (Health Harvard,
Dwindel Salinas
Several techniques to counter chronic stress
(Health Harvard 2017)

1. Relaxation response
• Dr. Herbert Benson, director emeritus of the Benson-Henry
Institute for Mind Body Medicine at Massachusetts General
• People can counter the stress response by using a combination of
approaches that elicit the relaxation response.
Several techniques to counter chronic stress
(Health Harvard 2017)

• These include deep abdominal breathing, focus on a soothing

word (such as peace or calm), visualization of tranquil scenes,
repetitive prayer, yoga, and tai chi.
Most of the research using objective measures to evaluate how
effective the relaxation response in people with hypertension and
other forms of heart disease results suggest the technique may be
worth trying — although for most people it is not a cure-all.
Several techniques to counter chronic stress
(Health Harvard 2017)

2. Physical activity
• People can use exercise to stifle the build-up of stress in several
• Taking a brisk walk shortly after feeling stressed
• Movement therapies (yoga, tai chi, and qi gong)
Several techniques to counter chronic stress
(Health Harvard 2017)

3. Social support
• Confidants, friends, acquaintances, co-workers, relatives, spouses,
and companions all provide a life-enhancing social net — and may
increase longevity
• People who enjoy close relationships with family and friends
receive emotional support
The Cultural Dimension of Stress and
• Stress and coping researches constitute one of the most
intensively studied areas within health, social, and psychological
research (Aldwin, 2007).
• Lazarus and Folkman (1984) postulated that a person’s
internalized cultural values, beliefs, and norms affect the appraisal
process of stressors and the perceived appropriateness of coping
The Cultural Dimension of Stress and
• Stress and coping are universal experiences faced by individuals
regardless of culture, ethnicity, and race
• Members of different cultures might consider and respond to
stressors differently with respect to coping goals, strategies, and
• A reading of Lazarus and Folkman’s (1984) widely cited stress and
coping framework
The Cultural Dimension of Stress and

• Within this framework, stress is conceived as an interaction

between the demands of the environment and the resources of
the self, and coping is conceptualized as the management of these
interactions between the self and environment.
The Cultural Dimension of Stress and
• Cross-cultural researchers undoubtedly are aware of culture’s
influence on each of these major agents in the stress and coping
encounter; culture influences the nature of the self (Markus &
Kitayama, 1991; Triandis, 1989), the nature of the environment
(Kitayama, Matsumoto, Markus, & Norasakkunkit, 1997), and
even the perception of the environment (Choi, Nisbett, &
Norenzayan, 1999; Masuda & Nisbett, 2001).
The Cultural Dimension of Stress and

• The current studies examine how culture is related to coping,

specifically internally targeted and externally targeted control in
response to stressful events.
Self-care Therapy
• A positive way to counter stress is self-care therapy. Nancy
Apperson of Northern Illinois University has provided steps for
1. Stop, breathe, and tell yourself: “ this is hard and I will get through
this one step at a time”.
2. Acknowledge what you are feeling. All feelings are normal so
accept what you are feeling.
Self-care Therapy
3. Find someone who listens and is accepting. You do not need advice.
You have to be heard.
4. Maintain your normal routine as much as possible. Be realistic with
what you can do and remember that everything will take you longer to
do. Avoid making major decisions.
5. Allow plenty of time for a tasks. Accept how much you are able to
do right now and recognize it will not be this way forever.
Self-care Therapy
6. Take good care of yourself. Remember to:
a. Get enough rest and sleep
b. Eat regularly and make healthy choices
c. Know your limits and know when you need to let go
d. Identify or create a nurturing place
e. Practice relaxation and meditation
f. Escape for a while
Self-compassion Self-compassionate people
 Negatively related to →People aim just high, but also
perfectionism recognize and accept that
they cannot always reach their
 is also linked to greater →Have less motivational anxiety
personal initiative – the desire and engage in fewer self-
to reach one’s full potential handicapping behaviors.

 Positively associated with →Motivated to achieve, but for

mastery goals and negatively instinct reasons, not because
associated with performance they want to garner social
goals. approval
Self-compassion Self-esteem
 Predicts great happiness  Robust association with
and optimism as well as narcissism
less depression and  Evaluation of
anxiety when controlling superiority/inferiority
for self-esteem  Positions the self in
 No association with competition with others
 Less focused in evaluating
 Enhances feelings of
Thank You