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# HEAT, TEMPERATURE

AND
THERMAL EXPANSION

Lecture 2
Dr. NERRIE E. MALALUAN
THE NATURE OF HEAT
 Heat is defined as the transfer of
energy from one object to another
because of a temperature difference
between the objects.
 It was believed that heat is an invisible
substance that passed from a hot body
to a cold body and that substance was
called caloric.
 Caloric theory states that a hot body
SOURCES OF HEAT
Sun
Earth’s interior
Chemical action
Mechanical energy
Electrical energy
Nuclear energy
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN “HEAT” AND
“TEMPERATURE”
THERMAL ENERGY OF A BODY
 It is the potential and kinetic energy of its particles that can be evolved
as heat.
 What we call temperature is simply the “hotness or coldness” of an
object.
 The quantity of thermal energy possessed by a different bodies,
however, does not give each the same temperature.
 The relationship between temperature and thermal energy is different
for different materials.
 Thermal energy which is being given up by a body, or being transferred
from one body to another is heat.
 The temperature of a body is a measure of its ability to give up heat to,
or absorb heat from other bodies.
UNITS OF HEAT
 In the CGS system, heat is expressed in
terms of calories.
 A calorie is a quantity of heat needed
to raised the temperature of one gram
of water in one degree Celsius.
1 calorie = 4.18605 joules
 In the MKS system, heat is expressed
in terms of kilocalories, that is the
amount of heat needed to raised the
HOW TO FIND THE NUMBER OF CALORIES?
To find the number of calories
necessary to heat water,
multiply the mass of water by the
number of degree rise in temperature.

## Number of calories = mass x rise in

temperature
Or
Number of calories = mass x ( tf - ti
)
where tf = final temperature
SAMPLE PROBLEM
How many calories of heat are required to
raise 1500 g of water to 1000 C from 200 C?
Solution:
Given: mass of H2O = 1500 g
tf = 1000 C
ti = 200 C
Required: number of calories
Formula: number of calories = mass x ( tf - ti )
= 1500 g (1000 C - 200C)
= 1500 g (800 C)
= 120 000 calories
TEMPERATURE
 Temperature is define as the average kinetic
energy of all the particles in an object.
 It is a physical property of a system that
underlies the common notions of hot and
cold and something that is hotter has
generally the higher temperature.
 Thermometry is the science of measuring
the temperature of matter and the
instrument used to measure a body’s
temperature is the thermometer.
THERMAL EXPANSION

##  Thermal expansion is the tendency of

matter to change in volume or in
length in response to a change in
temperature. When a substance is
heated, its constituent particles move
around more vigorously and by doing
so generally maintain a greater
average separation.
THERMAL EXPANSION FOR LENGTH
L=KL t
where L = delta length or change in
length
K = coefficient of linear expansion
the constant value
L = original length
t = change in temperature
THERMAL EXPANSION FOR VOLUME
V = βV t
where V = delta volume or change in volume
β = coefficient of volume expansion
V = original volume
t = change in temperature
LINEAR EXPANSITIVITIES OF SOLIDS
Material Per Celsius Degree
 Aluminum 0.000022
 Brass 0.000019
 Copper 0.000017
 Glass, ordinary 0.0000095
 Glass, pyrex 0.0000036
 Iron 0.000012
 Platinum 0.0000089
 Steel 0.000011
 Tungsten 0.0000043
COEFFICIENT OF VOLUME EXPANSION
OF LIQUIDS
Substance Per Celsius Degree

##  Alcohol (ethyl) 0.0011

 Mercury 0.00018
 Water (15 to1000 C) 0.00037
SAMPLE PROBLEMS
1. A copper bar is 2.5 m long at 150 C. what is the change in the
length of the bar when it is heated to 350 C?
Solution:
Given: L = 2.5 m
tf = 350 C
ti = 150 C
Required: L = ?
Formula: L = K L t
= (0.000017) (2.5 m) (350C-150 C)
0C

0C

## = 0.00085 m or 8.5 x 10-4

2. CALCULATE THE INCREASE IN VOLUME OF 0.1 L OF MERCURY WHEN ITS
TEMPERATURE CHANGES FROM 100 C TO 350 C.
Solution:
Given: V = 0.1 L
tf = 350 C
ti = 100 C
Required: V = ?
Formula: V = β V t
= (0.00018) (0.1 L) (350 C-100 C)
0C

## = (0.00018) (0.1 L) (250 C)

0C

= 0.00045 or 45 x 10-4
Law of Heat Exchange
 Heat capacity = mass x specific heat
 H = mass x specific heat x change in temperature

 H= m x c x t

Sample :
How many calories will be needed to change the
temperature of 2 kg of water from 400C to 100oC?
Given: m = 2 kg or 2000 g
t1 = 40 oC
t2 = 100 0C
c = 1 cal/goC
H= ?
Formula: H = mc( t2 – t1)
2000g x 1cal/g0C x (100oC – 400C)
2000 x 60 cal
= 120,000 calories
The law of heat exchange could be
represented in the equation:
Heat gained by cold body =Heat lost by hot body
m c x cc x ( t ) c = m h x ch x ( t ) h

Sample Problem:
A 150 g metal is heated to 100 oC and then
immersed in an aluminum container of mass 200
g containing 450 g of water at 20 oC. If the final
temperature of the mixture is 23.1 OC, find the
specific heat of the metal.