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# TRANSFER OF HEAT Physical Science 20

WE KNOW THAT…
Heat is transferred from hot objects to cold objects when they come into contact with
each other

We rarely question how heat (thermal energy) is actually transferred from one object
to another however.

Heat transfer can occur by one of three ways – conduction, convection or radiation.
CONDUCTION
Process of heat transfer in which heat energy is passed on from
one end of the solid to the other end through the collisions between
the particles.

## (Example: if you were to roast a marshmallow using a metal fork,

the end of the fork in the flame would get hot and this heat would
be transferred to the end of the fork you are holding. The flame
causes the molecules in the flame end to vibrate more rapidly.
These molecules vibrate against neighboring atoms causing them o
vibrate more quickly as well. )
CONVECTION
In liquids and gases
Convection – heat transfer due to the actual motion of the fluid
itself
As you warm a fluid from the bottom, the molecules at the bottom
begin to move faster, becoming less dense, moving to the top. The
cooler molecules that were on top sink to the bottom.
Convection currents keep the liquids/gasses stirred as they heat up.
Energy that is transferred through space in the form of electromagnetic
waves.
radiation, X rays and gamma rays.
Radiant energy that strikes an object is partially absorbed, and partially
reflected. The energy absorbed turns to heat energy.
PRINCIPLE OF HEAT EXCHANGE
The principle of heat exchange states that when two substances at
different temperatures are mixed, the amount of heat lost by the
warmer substance equals the amount of heat gained by the cooler
substance.

## Heat lost = Heat gained

CALORIMETRY
Calorimeters are special containers used to measure the
exchange of heat when substances are mixed. The name
comes from the old unit of energy, the calorie.

## Calorimeters are designed so that all the heat is

transferred from one substance to another inside the
container – no heat is lost to the surroundings.
CALORIMETER
A solid sample is placed on the stirring stick,
which is submerged in water.

## The initial temperature of the solid sample

and the water is known before submergence.

## The masses are known and the specific heat

capacities are constants. After the two
samples have reached thermal equilibrium,
the final temperature can be measured
directly.
Calorimetry is how we will measure heat transfer. If one object
loses heat the other gains heat. This transfer of energy can be
summarized using the formula:
Example: A 1.0kg brass block that is 88 degrees C is placed in
0.44 kg of water at 6 degrees C. The final temperature of the
water and brass is 20 degrees C. What is the specific heat
capacity of the brass block?