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THE RECIPROCITY IN THE

LOWLAND PHILIPPINES
While the norm of reciprocity is a
universal principle of behavior, its
manifestations, the emphasis
placed upon it, and the power it
has to influence social behavior
differ from one society to the next.
Contractual Reciprocity

A study of reciprocity in Tulayan and


similar Philippine lowland communities
yields a threefold classification: namely,
contractual reciprocity, quasi-contractual
reciprocity, and utang na loob (debt of
gratitude) reciprocity.
• Supposes voluntary agreement between 2
or more people to behave towards one
another in a specified way and time in the
future
• Reciprocal acts one equivalent, their
amount and from having been explicitly
agreed upon beforehead
Ex.
Group of farmers who
take turns plowing one
another`s field
Quasi-Contractual Reciprocity
• Regulates balanced exchanges where the
term of repayment are not explicitly stated
before

the contract is made


• Play atomically without any specific prior
arrangement, and repayment in a
mechanical, almost non-affective manner.
Ex
-Abuloy- death
- Bayananihan
(make fishing rafts)
UTANG NA LOOB RECIPROCITY
- most commonly generated when transfer
of goods/services takes place between
individuals belonging to different groups.

- recipient shows gratitude by returning favor


with interest to be sure he doesn't remain in
the others debt.

-unexpected favor from the unexpected


person.
Ex.

PARENTS - CHILD
RELATIONSHIP
•HIYA
• is the universal social sanction that
regulates the give and take of reciprocity
and, general, all social behavior.

• maybe translated as “ as sense of social


propriety;” as a preventive, it makes for
conformity to community norms.
•WAY IBALUS
-one who has nothing to pay.

- the none payer of debt of gratitude in


Southwestern Leyte.
Utang na Loob in Practice
To show the principle of utang na loob
reciprocity in operation. I shall now
discuss the occasions in which utang
na loob is incurred and then present a
description of situations through which
these obligations may be wholly or
partially repaid. In going through the
analysis. One should keep in mind
distinction made above between utang
na loob reciprocity and complemtarity.
Mauss

• makes clear that in primitive society,


reciprocity play an extremely important
role which is not primarily of an economic
nature but “ a total social fact”.
Malinowski

• famous analysis of the Melanesian kula


ring system of exchange also emphasize
the social nature of reciprocation.
Levi - Strauss

• reciprocity is a means for transmission of


goods, particularly in more primitive
societies.