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AUTOMATED MONITORING AND ANALYSIS OF CIRCUIT BREAKER OPERATION

Seminar Guide: Mrs.BINDU C. J By,


RAKHI H
EE0943
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OVERVIEW
 Introduction
 Existing CB inspection
 Proposed System Architecture
 Signal Processing
 Expert System
 User Interface for Analysis Module
 Testing and Evaluation
 Advantages
 Conclusion
 References

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INTRODUCTION
 Circuit breakers are crucial components for power system operation.

 Circuit breakers play an important role in switching for the routine


network operation and protection of other devices in power systems.

 To ensure circuit breakers are in healthy condition, periodical


inspection and preventive maintenance are typically performed.

 The utility may contain sheer number of CBs which makes


impossible to perform the inspection and monitoring with sufficient
frequency.

 New maintenance techniques and methodologies are emerging, while


the circuit breakers keep improving in their designs and functions.
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EXISTING CB INSPECTION
 Recording of results is performed using a portable custom
recording device.

 Maintenance crew analyses the abnormalities in the waveforms.

 Expert individuals are needed.

 Archiving of the records is manual and not centralized.

 Frequent visit to the substation in order to detect any potential


problems increases maintenance cost.

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PROPOSED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
 The ACBM system supports client/server architecture.
 Architecture can be divided into two parts:

a) hardware, which includes Intelligent Electronic Devices


(IEDs) and communication to the data repository PC

b) software, which perform automated analysis of field-


recorded data related to operations of a group of breakers
involved in the same switching action

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CB CONTROL CIRCUIT

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CIRCUIT BREAKER MONITOR

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 Signal Conditioning Module

-scale the signals to be in the range required by the A/D


converter

-it should protect the rest of the device from high voltage
transients generated during trip or close coil operation
 Analog to Digital Conversion Module

The analog signals must be converted to digital form with


a resolution high enough to allow an accurate analysis.
 Microprocessor Module

-x 86 families is used for controlling the data acquisition and


running the communication protocols

-Detects events and record data for specified duration in


memory
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 Wireless Communication Module

-enables data transfer from multiple points to the central


storage system

-A wireless modem employing Frequency Hopping Spread


Spectrum technology is used to transmit the collected data to the
master unit in the control house
 Time Synchronization

-All CBM slave units are synchronized to GPS time

-Time synchronization is implemented using a GPS clock


receiver and wireless transceivers for time distribution to IEDs
located in a switchyard

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ACBM SOFTWARE
 Three main functions are:
• Automated analysis of individual circuit breaker operation in
real time
• Automated analysis of an operation of a group of circuit breakers
• Distribution of results though different GUI views and reports for
variety of users

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SIGNAL PROCESSING
 Signal parameters are classified into two groups:
a) Events time parameters
b) Waveform distortion parameters

 Events refer to a signal transition or an unusual change in the


waveform profile.

Event Event Description Signal Parameters


1 Trip or close operation is initiated. (Trip or close T1
initiate signal changes from “LOW” to “HIGH”)
2 Coil current picks up T2
3 Coil current picks up T3

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 Wavelet decomposition and reconstruction filter banks is used for
data pre-processing application.
 Three-level feature extraction:
de-noising
splitting
signal parameter calculation
 Fourier analysis is used for obtaining the information on
frequency spectrum of the signal.
 For elimination of measurement noise, removal and extraction of
unnecessary signal components of the frequency spectrum, digital
filtering is being used.

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EXPERT SYSTEM
 Returns an event report and is based on knowledge.

 Knowledge base contains a set of basic and complex rules.

 Basic rules are fired directly by signal parameters.

 Complex rules are fired directly or indirectly through other rules.

 Can be implemented using any expert system software like CLIPS.

 ES lead into conclusions about analyzed signal waveforms.

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Fig: Analysis including complex rule

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 ES software provides a generic and consistent solution.

 Consistent analysis is achieved through temporal reasoning based


on rules, settings, and inference engine.

 Records and results are made available to the users within the
company through the web application.

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USER INTERFACE FOR ANALYSIS
MODULE
 Made available to both client and server.

 Waveform window
All input signals are displayed
Up to 5 different records can be selected for overlaying

 Signal parameters window - displays signal names and values of


extracted parameters.

 Status window
display progress of the processing
displays error message if analysis fails or if the user
interrupts processing

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MAIN WINDOW

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Screenshot of ES Settings Dialog

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USER INTERFACE FOR WEB
APPLICATION
 Enables the users connected to the company intranet to access
data.

 Can be implemented using software like ASP.NET

 Contents of the Web pages changes based on user inputs and data
retrieved from the database.

 Functions supported by the ACBM web application:

• Basic search (Default) of DFR records and reports

•Advanced search of DFR records and reports

•Authorization and authentication of the users


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• Graphical presentation of the system and substations statistics

• Displaying signal processing and Expert system settings

• Remote manual classification of the DFR records and analysis


reports

• File transfer of the DFR records between server and workstations


connected to the company intranet and vice versa

• Remote user accounts maintenance

• Exporting search results to the spreadsheet

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TESTING AND EVALUATION
 Divided into two stages:

i) find whether every feature is extracted correctly from the original data.

ii) to build up settings for different types of breaker

 Expert classifies the data into two categories: normal or abnormal.

 Settings define the expected value of the signal parameter and tolerances
define the deviation from the settings.

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ADVANTAGES

 Automating the analysis process.

 Accelerating the analysis speed.

 Providing consistent analysis calibrations.

 Allowing compatibility with different CB types.

 Enabling user-friendly access to the CB operation.

 Improves the reliability and reduce the maintenance cost.

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CONCLUSION
 Using advanced signal processing and expert system techniques,
CB operation can be monitored and analyzed .

 Signal processing has to be capable of extracting relevant features


of the signals recorded from the CB control circuitry.

 Expert system should have sufficient facts and rules to detect


abnormalities in the CB operation based on the extracted signal
features.

 By performing the automated analysis, two main goals are


achieved:
i) reduction in the time needed to detect an abnormality . ii)
consistency in performing the analysis.
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REFERENCES
 M. Kezunovic, Z. Ren, G. Latisko, D. R. Sevcik, J. Lucey, W. Cook,
E.Koch, “Automated Monitoring and Analysis of Circuit Breaker
Operation,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 20, No. 3,
pp1910-1918, July 2005
 Maja Knezev, Zarko Djekic, Mladen Kezunovic, “Automated Circuit
Breaker Monitoring”, Power Engineering Society Meeting, Page(s):
1 – 6, 2007
 M. Kezunovic, C. Nail, Z. Ren, D. R. Sevcik, S. Lucey, W.E. Cook,
E.A. Koch, “Automated Circuit Breaker Monitoring and Analysis”,
IEEE PES summer meeting, Chicago, July 2002.
 Mladen Kezunovic, Goran Latisko, Zhifang Ren, Don Sevcik, John
Lucey, Edward Koch, Wayland Cook, “Automated Analysis of
Circuit Breaker Operation”, 17th International Conference on
Electricity Distribution Barcelona, 12-15 May 2003
 Bosma and R. Thomas, “Condition monitoring and maintenance
strategies for high-voltage circuit breakers," in IEE 6th International
Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation and
Management (APSCOM-2003), vol. 1, Hong Kong, Nov. 11-14,
2003. 25
THANK YOU

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