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GONADS- an organ
that produces gametes;
a testis or ovary.
The reproduction of
male and female is
different in stages or
Genitalia- The male or
female reproductive
male sex hormone that
is important for sexual
and reproductive
Estrogen is the
major female
Why do you need more
A pseudohermaphrodite is a
person whose gonads are
consistent with the
chromosomal sex but who
has external genitalia of the
opposite sex.
1. Scrutom-a pouch
of skin containing the
2. Testicles (testes) —
The testes are oval organs about the size
of very large olives that lie in the scrotum,
secured at either end by a structure called
the spermatic cord.
• The testes are responsible for making
testosterone, the primary male sex
hormone, and for producing sperm.
Epididymis — The epididymis is a long,
coiled tube that rests on the backside of
each testicle.
• It functions in the carrying and storage
of the sperm cells that are produced in
the testes. It also is the job of the
epididymis to bring the sperm to
maturity, since the sperm that emerge
from the testes are immature.
What are the internal
male reproductive
1. Vas deferens — The vas deferens is a
long, muscular tube that travels from
the epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to
just behind the bladder.
2. The vas deferens transports mature
sperm to the urethra in preparation
for ejaculation.
1. Vas deferens — The vas deferens is a
long, muscular tube that travels from the
epididymis into the pelvic cavity, to just
behind the bladder. The vas deferens
transports mature sperm to the urethra in
preparation for ejaculation.
2. ANUS- the opening at the end of
the alimentary canal through which
solid waste matter leaves the body.
3. COWPERS GLAND- either of a pair of
small glands which open into the urethra
at the base of the penis and secrete a
constituent of seminal fluid.
4. PROSTATE GLAND- The prostate gland is
a walnut-sized structure that is located
below the urinary bladder in front of the
• The prostate gland contributes
additional fluid to the ejaculate.
5. EJACULATORY DUCT- Each ejaculatory
duct as about two centimeters in length.
• When both ducts are obstructed, patients are likely to
experience symptoms such as infertility and
azoospermia (low sperm count) or aspermia (absence
of sperm).
• Transurethral resection is a surgical procedure that can
be used to open the ducts; its goal is to make regular
ejaculation flow possible once again.
6. SEMINAL VESICLE- The seminal vesicles are
sac-like pouches that attach to the vas deferens near the
base of the bladder.
The seminal vesicles produce a sugar-rich fluid (fructose)
that provides sperm with a source of energy and helps
with the sperms’ motility (ability to move).
7. RECTUM- the final section of the large intestine,
terminating at the anus.
is an 8-inch chamber that connects the colon to the anus.
It is the rectum's job to receive stool from the colon, to let
the person know that there is stool to be evacuated, and
to hold the stool until evacuation happens.
9. SIGMOID COLON- The sigmoid colon (or
pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is
closest to the rectum and anus. It forms a loop that
averages about 35–40 cm (13.78-15.75 in) in length.

• its function is to store fecal wastes until they are ready

to leave the body.
1. BLADDER- The urinary bladder
is a muscular sac in the pelvis,
just above and behind the
pubic bone.
2. When empty, the bladder is
about the size and shape of a
Because it passes through the
penis, the urethra is longer in men
(8 inches) than in women (1.5
Bladder Conditions

1. Cystitis: Inflammation or infection of the

bladder causing acute or chronic pain,
discomfort, or urinary frequency or
Bladder Conditions

2. Urinary stones: Stones (calculi) may

form in the kidney and travel down to the
bladder. If kidney stones block urine flow
to or from the bladder, they can cause
severe pain.
Bladder Conditions

3. Bladder cancer: A tumor in the bladder

is usually discovered after blood is found in
the urine. Cigarette smoking and
workplace chemical exposures cause most
cases of bladder cancer.
Bladder Conditions

4. Urinary incontinence:
Uncontrolled urination, which may be
chronic. Urinary incontinence can result
from many causes.
Bladder Conditions
5. Hematuria: Blood in the urine.
Hematuria may be harmless, or may be
caused by infection or a serious condition
like bladder cancer.
Bladder Conditions

6. Cystocele: Weakened pelvic muscles

(usually from childbirth) allow the bladder
to press on the vagina. Problems with
urination can result.
Bladder Conditions

7. Bed-wetting (nocturnal enuresis): Bed-

wetting is defined as a child age 5 or older
who wets the bed at least one or two
times a week over at least 3 months.
Bladder Conditions

8. Dysuria (painful urination): Pain or

discomfort during urination due to
infection, irritation, or inflammation of the
bladder, urethra, or external genitals.
Bladder Tests

1. Urinalysis: This basic test of urine is

done both routinely and when looking for
problems of either the bladder or kidneys.
Bladder Tests

2. Cystoscopy: A narrow tube is passed

through the urethra and into the bladder.
A light, camera, and tools allow a doctor to
diagnose and treat bladder problems.
3. Bladder catheterization: If urine outflow
is obstructed, a catheter may be necessary
to relieve pressure in the bladder.
4. Kegel exercises: Exercising the pelvic
muscles (as when stopping your urine
stream) may improve urinary
CRYPTORCHIRDISM- a condition in which
one or both of the testes fail to descend
from the abdomen into the scrotum.
What do you call the
largest bone in the
Femur/Thigh Bone
The strongest, longest, and largest bone in the
human body is the femur, or thigh bone, which
is a bone in the leg that runs from the knee to
the hip.
What do you call the smallest bone in the
The stapes is the third bone of the three ossicles
in the middle ear.
The stapes is a stirrup-shaped bone, and the
smallest in the human body. It rests on the oval
window, to which it is connected by an annular
HOW many
2. Body Chromosems
3. Sex Chromosomes
do we have?
Phimosis is a condition where the foreskin
is too tight to be pulled back over the head
of the penis (glans).
Phimosis is normal in babies and toddlers,
but in older children it may be the result of
a skin condition that has caused scarring.
Signs of Puberty in Boys
8 Stages of Puberty in Girls: Hair and
Other Signs
1. Body Growth
2. Breast Development
3. Body Hair
4. Body Sweat
5. Body Sweat
6. Genitals Develop
7. Discharge Occurs-stains
8. First Period Starts
Vaginal infections and vaginitis, or
inflammation of the vagina, are very
common — so much so that most women
will experience one or the other, and likely
both, during their lifetime. Symptoms of
either a vaginal infection or vaginitis may
includevaginal discharge, itching, burning,
pain, and a strong odor.
2. (Escherichia coli), is a type of bacteria
that normally lives in your intestines. It's
also found in the gut of some animals.
Most types of
E. coli are harmless and even help keep
your digestive tract healthy. But some
strains can cause diarrhea if you eat
contaminated food or drink fouled water.
1. Syphilis is a bacterial infection usually
spread by sexual contact. The disease
starts as a painless sore — typically on your
genitals, rectum or mouth. Syphilis spreads
from person to person via skin or mucous
membrane contact with these sores.
About 2 to 10 weeks after the first sore appears, you may develop the
1. A skin rash that causes small, reddish-brown sores
2. Sores in your mouth, vagina, or anus
3. Fever
4. Weight loss
5. Hair loss
6. Headache
7. Extreme tiredness (fatigue)
7. Muscle aches

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can infect both

men and women. It can cause infections in the genitals, rectum, and
throat. It is a very common infection, especially among young people
ages 15-24 years.
Kissing may help spread oral gonorrhea
Herpes simplex is a viral infection that
typically affects the mouth, genitals, or
anal area. It is contagious and can
cause outbreaks of sores and other
1. Prostatitis is the inflammation (swelling) of
the prostate gland. It can be very painful and
distressing, but will often get better
eventually. The prostate is a small gland
found in men that lies between the penis and
bladder. It produces fluid that's mixed with
sperm to create semen.
2. Urethritis is inflammation of the
urethra. That's the tube that carries urine
from the bladder to outside the body.
Pain with urination is the main symptom
of urethritis.
3. Epididymitis is an inflammation of the
epididymis. The epididymis is a tube located at
the back of the testicles that stores and carries
sperm. When this tube becomes swollen, it can
cause pain and swelling in the
testicles. Epididymitis can affect men of all ages,
but it's most common in men between ages 14
and 35.
4. STDs are sexually transmitted diseases.
This means they are most often -- but not
exclusively -- spread by sexual intercourse.
HIV, chlamydia, genital herpes, genital warts,
gonorrhea, some forms of hepatitis, syphilis,
and trichomoniasis are STDs.STDs used to be
called venereal diseases or VD.
The best way to avoid getting an STD from
kissing is to have a direct, transparent
conversation about it with your partner.
This can be intimidating, but setting
boundaries early can help you avoid
5. Orchitis is inflammation of the
testes. It can also involve swelling,
pains and frequent infection,
particularly of the epididymis, as in
NEOPLASM- a new and abnormal
growth of tissue in some part of the
body, especially as a characteristic of
Prostate cancer is cancer that occurs
in the prostate — a small walnut-
shaped gland in men that produces
the seminal fluid that nourishes and
transports sperm. Prostate cancer is
one of the most common types of
cancer in men.
"An erogenous zone is anywhere on
the body that has a heightened
sensitivity and can elicit a sexual
response when stimulated," explains
Jane Greer, Ph.D., a sex and
relationship expert.
Sexual Behavior
Sexual behavior in males and females has
three components:
1. attraction,
2. motivation and
3. performance.
In most species, either the male or the female
has evolved elaborate displays to attract the
opposite sex. Without motivation, the desire
to seek out sex is low.
By far the greatest amount of
sociosexual activity
is heterosexual activity between only
one male and one female.
Heterosexual activity frequently begins
in childhood, and, while much of it
may be motivated by curiosity, such as
showing or examining genitalia, many
children engage in sex play because it
is pleasurable.
With adolescence, sex play is superseded
by dating, which is socially encouraged,
and dating almost inevitably involves
some physical contact resulting in sexual
arousal. This contact, labelled necking
or petting, is a part of the learning
process and ultimately of courtship and
the selection of a marriage partner.
Petting varies from hugging, kissing,
and generalized caresses of the
clothed body to techniques involving
genital stimulation.
Petting may be done for its own sake
as an expression of affection and a
source of pleasure, and it may occur as
a preliminary to coitus.
Coitus, the insertion of the penis into
the vagina, is viewed by society quite
differently depending upon the marital
status of the individuals.
1. The majority of human societies permit premarital coitus, at least
under certain circumstances.
In more repressive societies, such as modern Western society, it is
more likely to be tolerated (but not encouraged) if the individuals
intend marriage.
2. Marital coitus is usually regarded as an obligation in most societies.
3. Extramarital coitus, particularly by wives, is generally condemned
and, if permitted, is allowed only under exceptional conditions or with
specified persons.
4. Postmarital coitus (i.e., coitus by separated, divorced, or widowed
persons) is almost always ignored. Even societies that try to confine
coitus to marriage recognize the difficulty of trying to force abstinence
upon sexually experienced and usually older persons.
Gonorrhea. This is another bacterial
STD only spread through unprotected
sex, not saliva from kissing.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a viral
infection that's passed between
people through skin-to-skin contact.
3. Genital herpes is a common sexually
transmitted infection caused by
the herpessimplex virus (HSV). Sexual
contact is the primary way that the
virus spreads. ...Genital herpes can
cause pain, itching and sores in
your genital area. But you may have
no signs or symptoms of genital
HIV is a virus spread through certain
body fluids that attacks the body's
immune system,
AIDS is the late stage of HIV
infection that occurs when the body’s
immune system is badly damaged
because of the virus.
Chlamydia is a common sexually
transmitted disease. It is caused by
bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis.
It can infect both men and women.
Women can get chlamydia in the
cervix, rectum, or throat. Men can
get chlamydia in the urethra (inside
the penis), rectum, or throat.

a venereal infection causing ulceration

of the lymph nodes in the groin.
Trichomonas vaginalis
It can infect the vagina, the urethra
(tube that carries urine out of the
body) and under the foreskin of the
penis. The infection is easily passed
from one person to another through
sexual contact.

the fact or practice of restraining

oneself from indulging in something,
typically alcohol.

The rhythm method, also called the calendar

method or the calendar rhythm method, is a
form of natural family planning. To use
the rhythm method, you track your
menstrual history to predict when you'll
ovulate. This helps you determine when
you're most likely to conceive.
3. The basal body temperature
method is a technique used in family
planning. Basal temperature is the
temperature of your body when you are
completely at rest. After a woman
ovulates (releases an egg from the
ovary), her body temperature rises
The cervical mucus method is based on
careful observation of mucus patterns during
the course of your menstrual cycle. Before
ovulation, cervical secretions change —
creating an environment that helps sperm
travel through the cervix, uterus and
fallopian tubes to the egg.
5. The Symptothermal Method (STM)
is an effective, co-operative,
scientifically-based and
inexpensivemethod of natural family
planning. It is based on the awareness
of the fertility of the couple.
Urine Test Kits to Measure Luteininzing Hormone
(LH) Levels.
Once the LH surge has
occurred, ovulation usually takes place within 12
to 36 hours. Urine testing usually begins two days
prior to the expected day ofovulation. ... If the
cycle ranges between 27 to 34
days, ovulation usually occurs between days 13
to 20.
7. Coitus interruptus, also known as
withdrawal or the pull-out method, is a
method of birth control in which a man,
during sexual intercourse, withdraws his
penis from a woman's vagina prior to
orgasm (and ejaculation) and then directs
his ejaculate (semen) away from the
vagina in an effort to avoid insemination.