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DEVELOPMENT OF HUMANS AS SOCIAL ACTORS

POLITICS,
HUMAN EVOLUTION ENCULTURATION
HUMAN VARIATION ANTHROPOLOGY SOCIOLOGY
& CULTURE , SOCIAL
ORGANIZATION

SOCIOLOGICAL
INTRODUCTION CULTURE
CONCEPTS

CHARACTERISTI METHODS IN
DEFINTION
CS SOCIOLOGY

THEORIES OF
5 DISCIPLINES
CULTURE
Madaling maging
tao pero mahirap
magpakatao
ANTHROPOLOGY

• Humans studying humans


• Greek antropos (human) + logos (study)
• What does it mean to be human?
• This allows for an extensive and
inclusive approach such that
anthropology studies humans as
both biological and social creatures.
ANTHROPOLOGY

• It is holistic because:
–Its research time frame which ranges from
the evolution of humans as species to our
current development;
–It studies humans from various ethnic
groupings and geographic locations
• What does it mean to be human?
ANTHROPOLOGY

• It is defined as the study of people –


their origins, their development, and
contemporary variations, wherever
and whenever they have been found
on the face of the earth (Ember, 2010)
• What does it mean to be human?
ANTHROPOLOGY

Five Subdisciplines:
• Archeology
• Cultural anthropology
• Linguistic anthropology
• Physical anthropology
• Applied anthropology
ANTHROPOLOGY

Five Subdisciplines:
• Archeology
–Examines the remains of ancient and
historical human populations to promote
understanding of how humans have
adapted to their environment and
developed.
• Cultural anthropology
• Linguistic anthropology
• Physical anthropology
• Applied anthropology
ANTHROPOLOGY

Five Subdisciplines:
• Archeology

• Cultural anthropology
–The study of a society’s culture through
their belief systems, practices, and
possessions.
• Linguistic anthropology
• Physical anthropology
• Applied anthropology
ANTHROPOLOGY

Five Subdisciplines:
• Archeology
• Cultural anthropology

• Linguistic anthropology
–Examines the language of a group of
people and its relation to their culture.
• Physical anthropology
• Applied anthropology
ANTHROPOLOGY

Five Subdisciplines:
• Archeology
• Cultural anthropology
• Linguistic anthropology

• Physical anthropology
–Looks into the biological development of
humans and their contemporary variation
• Applied anthropology
ANTHROPOLOGY

Five Subdisciplines:
• Archeology
• Cultural anthropology
• Linguistic anthropology
• Physical anthropology

• Applied anthropology
• Attempts to solve contemporary problems
through the application of theories and
approaches of the disciple.
ANTHROPOLOGY
19th Century Anthropology
Anthropologists would investigate on the beliefs,
behavior, and material possessions of non-Western,
preliterate, and technologically simple societies.

21st Century Anthropology


• Human experiences diversified
• Anthropology extended its study to cultural and
subcultural groups in industrialized societies.
ANTHROPOLOGY

Information gathering is crucial


• Anthropologists need to establish
rapport with their host societies;
• A key informant have significant
knowledge on the topic being studied by
the anthropologist;
• Participant-observation method
The researcher participates on the daily practices and rituals of
the group being studied.
ANTHROPOLOGY

•What is anthropology?
•Why is anthropology important?
•What are the branches of anthropology?

•WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE HUMAN?


Culture Shock
The feeling of disorientation experienced
by someone who is suddenly subjected to
an unfamiliar culture, way of life or set of
attitudes.
DEVELOPMENT OF HUMANS AS SOCIAL ACTORS

POLITICS,
HUMAN EVOLUTION ENCULTURATION
HUMAN VARIATION ANTHROPOLOGY SOCIOLOGY
& CULTURE , SOCIAL
ORGANIZATION

SOCIOLOGICAL
INTRODUCTION CULTURE
CONCEPTS

CHARACTERISTI METHODS IN
DEFINTION
CS SOCIOLOGY

THEORIES OF
5 DISCIPLINES
CULTURE
CULTURE

CULTURE is everything
that a person learns as
a member of the
society.
Characteristics of CULTURE

CULTURE is everything that a person


learns as a member of the society.

Culture is EVERYTHING
A collection of values and ideas
communally owned and practiced by
members of the society
Culture is shared intergenerationally.
Characteristics of CULTURE
Culture is EVERYTHING
Culture is what a person has, does, and thinks as
part of a society. As such, it is a powerful agent
in shaping the decisions and actions of humans
in a given situation. It is consist of
material and nonmaterial.

MATERIAL CULTURE NON-MATERIAL CULTURE


Clothes, food, buildings Values, ideas, knowledge
Characteristics of CULTURE

CULTURE is everything that a person


learns as a member of the society.
Culture is LEARNED through family, school, church, and
other institutions.
Enculturation – the process of learning your own culture.
Acculturation – culture can be modified to accommodate
desirable traits from other cultures.
Deculturation – when the reason for the culture has been
lost and even the cultural trait itself is in the process of
being forgotten.
1. Give an example of a behavior that your parent
questions of you.

2. Reason(s) why your parent thinks this behavior


is problematic.

3. Reason(s) why you think your parent believe that


this behavior is problematic.

4. Your reason for behaving as such


Characteristics of CULTURE

CULTURE is everything that a


person learns as a member of
the society.
Culture is SHARED
A collection of values and ideas communally
owned and practiced by members of the
society
Culture is shared intergenerationally.
Characteristics of CULTURE

CULTURE is everything that a


person learns as a member of
the society.
Culture is ADAPTIVE
Culture is a tool for survival that humans use
in response to the pressures of their
environment.
Characteristics of CULTURE

CULTURE is everything that a


person learns as a member of
the society.
Culture is MALADAPTIVE
Culture can cause problems for the
people who subscribe to it.
Characteristics of CULTURE
CULTURE is everything that a
person learns as a member of
the society.
Culture CHANGES
The final characteristic of culture is that it is
never static. This dynamism of culture is
due to the changing needs of humans as
they interpret and survive in their
environment.
CULTURE

a. What is culture?

b. What are the characteristics of culture?

c. How can culture be both adaptive and


maladaptive?
CULTURE
Theory Perspective
Cultural evolutionism All Cultures undergo the same development stages in
the same order.
Diffusionism All societies change as a result of cultural borrowing
from one another.
Historicism Each culture is unique and must be studied in its own
context.
Psychological anthropology Personality is largely seen to be the result of learning
culture.
Functionalism Society is thought to be like a biological organism
with all of the parts interconnected. Each institution
are thought to perform indispensible functions
necessary for the society to continue.
Neo-evolutionism Culture evolve when people are able to increase the
amount of energy under their control.
Materialism Culture is a product of the “material conditions” in
which a given community of people finds itself.
DEVELOPMENT OF HUMANS AS SOCIAL ACTORS

POLITICS,
HUMAN EVOLUTION ENCULTURATION
HUMAN VARIATION ANTHROPOLOGY SOCIOLOGY
& CULTURE , SOCIAL
ORGANIZATION

SOCIOLOGICAL
INTRODUCTION CULTURE
CONCEPTS

CHARACTERISTI METHODS IN
DEFINTION
CS SOCIOLOGY

THEORIES OF
5 DISCIPLINES
CULTURE
CULTURE

We do not POLICY 1
preserve our
Filipino values Pros
as much as we
should POLICY 2

Cons
CULTURE

Pros 1
POLICY 1
Cons 1
Traffic Congestion
Pros 2
POLICY 2
Cons 2
1. Which solution is the most effective?
2. Which is most affordable?
3. Which solution have long-term benefits?
4. Which solution have a direct impact on the problem?
5. Which have unintended effect?
1. We agreed on ____________ because _______
2. We disagreed on ____________ because ______
3. Despite some disagreements, we now all agree that____
4. We recommend the policy to be adopted because it ____
DEVELOPMENT OF HUMANS AS SOCIAL ACTORS

POLITICS,
HUMAN EVOLUTION ENCULTURATION
HUMAN VARIATION ANTHROPOLOGY SOCIOLOGY
& CULTURE , SOCIAL
ORGANIZATION

SOCIOLOGICAL
INTRODUCTION CULTURE
CONCEPTS

CHARACTERISTI METHODS IN
DEFINTION
CS SOCIOLOGY

THEORIES OF
5 DISCIPLINES
CULTURE