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Material classifications

Primarily materials are classified as

 Metals
 Ceramics
 Polymer
 Composites

Sub classification
 Semiconductors
 Biomaterials

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 Good electrical and heat conductor

 Ductile- Can be drawn into wires
 Malleable – Can be pressed into thin sheets.
 Lustrous appearance
 Good strength
 Solid at room temperature (except Hg)
 Non localized electrons
e.g. Iron, copper, Al etc.

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 Ceramic material are inorganic material made from

compounds of metal and non metal
 Mainly oxides, nitrides and carbides
 Normally insulators
 High melting point
 Hard and brittle
 Refractory work
 e. g. Aluminium Oxide (Al2O3), Silicon carbide (SiC)

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 Mainly organic
 Plastics and rubber
 Large molecules
 Low density material
 Normally flexible
 Low melting point

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 More than one material

 Best property of constituent material

Different types of composites

 Metal matrix composites
 Ceramic matrix composites
 Polymer matrix composites

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 Conductivity between conductor and insulator

 Adding of impurities ( Doping)
 Integrated chip (IC) revolution
 Semiconductor materials e. g. Silicon, Germanium, SiC

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 Compatibility with human body

 Implants
 All of above (Metal, ceramic, polymer) may be used
 Applications: Joint replacement, bone plates, dental
implants, contact lenses etc.

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Future demands

 Sophisticated materials for environment

 Nuclear revolution needs material
(Sophisticated materials to withstand very harsh condition and
protect from nuclear radiations)
 Transportation - Light weight material
 Solar technology - cheaper and efficient material

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Classification of metals


Ferrous Non Ferrous


Steel Cast Iron Aluminium

Carbon White CI
steel Tin

Gray CI

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Mechanical properties of materials

 Strength
 Elasticity
 Plasticity
 Ductility
 Brittleness
 Malleability
 Toughness
 Hardness
 Creep
 Fatigue
 Resilience

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Mechanical properties of materials

Strength: It is the ability of material to resist plastic deformation or

fracture when subjected to an externally applied force.
Depending upon the type of stresses induced by external loads, strength is
expressed as tensile strength, compressive strength or shear strength.

Tensile strength: Tensile strength is the ability of the material to resist

external load causing tensile stress, without fracture.

Compressive strength: is the ability to resist external load that

causes compressive stress, without failure.

Elasticity is defined as the ability of the material to regain its original

shape and size after the deformation, when the external forces are

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Mechanical properties of materials

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Properties of materials

Plasticity: It is the property of material which retains the permanent plastic

deformation even after removal of load.

Stiffness: Stiffness or rigidity is defined as the ability of the material to

resist deformation under the action of an external load.
Modulus of elasticity is the measure of stiffness.
 The values of the modulus of elasticity for aluminium alloy and carbon steel are
71 GPa and 207 GPa resp. Therefore, carbon steel is stiffer than aluminium

Resilience is defined as the ability of the material to absorb energy when

deformed elastically and to release this energy when unloaded.
 This property is essential for spring materials.

Toughness is defined as the ability of the material to absorb energy before

fracture takes place.
 Toughness is the ability to absorb energy within elastic and plastic range. In
other words, toughness is the energy for failure by fracture.

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Mechanical properties of materials

Ductility It is the property of a material enabling it to be drawn into wire with

the application of a tensile force.

 A ductile material must be both strong and plastic.

 Steels, copper and aluminium nickel etc. are ductile materials,
 The ductility is usually measured by the terms, percentage elongation and
percentage reduction in area.

Brittleness is the property of a material which shows negligible plastic

deformation before fracture takes place.
 Cast iron, ceramic material, glass, diamond etc. are brittle.
 The energy absorbed by a ductile specimen before fracture in a tension test is
more, while brittle fracture is accompanied by negligible energy absorption.
 In ductile materials, failure takes place by yielding which is gradual. Brittle
materials fail by sudden fracture
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Mechanical properties of materials

Malleability: It is a special case of ductility which permits materials to be

rolled or hammered into thin sheets.
 The commonly used malleable materials in engineering practice are lead, soft
steel, wrought iron, copper and aluminium.

Creep: When a part is subjected to a constant stress at high temperature

for a long period of time, it will undergo a slow and permanent deformation
called creep.
 Creep deformation is a function of stress level and temperature.
 Such deformation is significant even at room temperature and under moderate
 This property is considered in designing I. C. engines, boilers and turbines.
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Mechanical properties of materials

Machinability: It is the property of a material which refers to a relative

case with which a material can be cut.

Fatigue: When a material is subjected to repeated stresses, it fails at

stresses below the yield point stresses. Such type of failure of a material
is known as
The failure is caused by means of a progressive crack formation which
are usually fine and of microscopic size. This property is considered in
designing shafts.

Hardness: It is a properties such as resistance to wear, scratching,

deformation and machinability etc.
It also means the ability of a metal to cut another metal.

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