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SODIUM VAPOUR

LAMP
HISTORY:-
INVENTORS
&
DEVELOPMENT
LPS
• Low pressure sodium lamps were invented first in 1920
by Arthur H. Compton at Westinghouse.
• The first lamp was a round bulb with two electrodes on
each side. The solid sodium metal remained on the
bottom center of the bulb.
• The problem with Compton's models is that the highly
corrosive sodium would attack and blacken regular
silica glass.
• Next ,Marcello Pirani who worked for Osram in
Germany developed a sodium-resistant glass in 1931.
• In 1932, The first sodium lamps for commercial sale
were made by Philips.
HPS
• In 1955, a researcher named Robert L. Coble
working at the General Electric Research Lab near
Schenectady, New York developed a material called
Lucalox.
• His work helped pave the way for William Louden,
Kurt Schmidt, and Elmer Homonnay to invent the
HPS lamp.
TYPES OF

SODIUM VAPOUR
LAMP
LOW PRESSURE SODIUM VAPOUR
LAMP
Construction and working of LPS
• There is an arc tube(made of borosilicate glass) with neon gas that initially
makes the lamp have a red color to it when it is powered by two
electrodes at the ends of the tube.
• Indium tin oxide coating reflects infrared (heat energy) back to keep the
lamp hot.
• This neon serves to heat up the sodium metal in the lamp and vaporize
the sodium into sodium vapor. Which then begins to emit its yellow light
as it is excited by the electric current.
• The process of the neon heating up the sodium metal into sodium vapor
(240-300 deg C)means that it takes anywhere from five to ten minutes for
the lamp to fully turn on.
• Since the sodium vapor will not immediately return to its solid metal form
the light will reignite after a loss of power as long as power is returned
relatively quickly to the lamp.
High Pressure Sodium Vapour Lamp
Construction and Working of HPS
Construction of HPS
• The HPS lamp consists of a narrow arc tube
supported by a frame in a bulb.
• The arc tube has a high pressure inside for
higher efficiency.
• Sodium, mercury and xenon are usually used
inside the arc tube.
• The arc tube is made of aluminum oxide
ceramic which is resistant to the corrosive
effects of alkalis like sodium.
Working of HPS
• The most common way to start the lamp is with a pulse
start. There is an ignitor built into the ballast which sends a
pulse of high voltage energy through the arc tube.
• This pulse starts an arc through the xenon gas. The lamp
turns sky blue as the xenon lights.
• The arc then heats up the mercury and the mercury vapor
then lights, giving the lamp a bluish color.
• The lamp heats and the sodium is the last material to
vaporize. The sodium vapor strikes an arc over 240 C.
• The sodium is mixed with other impurities to create a more
"white" light. The mercury helps add a blue spectrum light
to the pure yellow of the sodium.
ADVANTAGES
&
DISADVANTAGES
LOW PRESSURE
SODIUM VAPOR
LAMPS
ADVANTAGES
Very efficient lamp(100-190 lumens per watt-
efficacy)
Powerful lamp for use in large areas
Despite a warm up time of 5-10 minutes, it
restarts immediately if there is a brownout
Lumen output does not drop with age (such
as in LEDs or incandescents)
DISADVANTAGES
 Worst color rendering of any lamp(CRI-44)
 Sodium is a hazardous material which can combust when
exposed to air (such as if the bulb is broken in the trash)
 Start time: Like all electric discharge lamps, Sodium lamps
take some time to become fully operational
 Since these lamps
produce
monochromatic
colour, they
are unsuitable for
indoor applications
HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM
VAPOR LAMP
Advantages:
 Good efficacy & efficiency (80-140 lumens per watt)
 Since it is smaller size than LPS or fluorescent, the HPS
fits into many fixture types .It can also be retrofitted
into older Mercury Vapor fixtures.
 Long life(more than LPS of 24,000 hrs) and low light
depreciation.
 Very short run-up time and quick re-strike.
 An economic alternative to high pressure mercury
vapour and metal halide lamps.
 Golden white light admitted by lamps gives a warm
appearance and better visual acuity.
 Ideal for precise optical control.
 Ideally suited for fog,dust rainfall conditions
Disadvantages:
• Still has a bad color rendering compared to metal
halide and halogen lamps(CRI -20-30).
• Requires a lossy ballast (inefficient) that operates a
low arc voltage of 52-100V. This reduces the actual
efficiency of the lamp when you count the whole
system together
TO SUM UP:-
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF SODIUM VAPOUR
LAMPS OVER OTHER LAMPS ?
1)Efficiency: Sodium Vapour Lamps are very efficient,
turning one watt of power into a whopping 200
lumens! Compare this with the 12 lumens per
watt of an incandescent bulb, or the 60 lumens
per watt of a CFL, or the 90 lumens per watt of
FTL.
2)Life: They have a very long life of 20,000 hours,
compared to the 1000 hours of an incandescent
bulb.
3)Light Colour: The monochromatic deep yellow
wavelength light produced by the sodium vapour
lamp is the ‘photopic’ range- in which humans see
best. Hence the vision even in foggy and dusty
conditions is excellent in this light.
4)Greater visual acuity. At normal interior intensities,
the monochromatic light (practically all orange-
yellow) permits easier discernment of detail than
do corresponding intensities of "white" light. Tests
now being conducted may show this to be an aid to
visibility on streets and highways. The color is in the
range to which the eye is most responsive.
5)No glare. Because the glow comes from a large tube
- and from the entire tube - the light source appears
to be much less bright; objectionable glare is
eliminated.
6) A soft, agreeable color. The golden-orange light is
pleasing and restful; it is sufficiently unusual and
distinctive to attract much favorable attention to a
demonstration installation, and is of practical value also
for the marking of traffic routes or intersections.
7)Easy to install and operate. Lamp and luminaire are
designed for conventional a-c. series and multiple
lighting circuits, with a minimum of circuit and
operating complications.
8)Reasonable cost. Long lamp life, high efficiency, further
simplification, and increased production are expected
to bring about in the relatively near future a lower cost
of sodium-vapor lighting that will make it an
economical means to greater safety, comfort, and
convenience for night traffic.
APPLICATIONS OF SODIUM VAPOUR
LAMPS
Ideally suitable for reducing energy consumption in
both indoor/outdoor applications, while providing
benefits of high efficacy, long service life, reliability
and fairly good color rendering in :
• Highway streets, flyovers, junctions etc.
• Airport apron's parking areas, storage yards, docks
etc.
• Industries warehouses, goodness etc.
• Floodlighting of monuments, exhibition sites etc.
• Long Tunnel lighting
• High bay lighting.
• Home yard lighting
• The monochromatic output of the low pressure sodium
lamp confines its use almost exclusively to the lighting
of major trunk roads, where the high luminous efficacy
often makes it the most economical light source.
• Security perimeter lighting around buildings is another
important application.
• Since its radiation is monochromatic, it can easily be
filtered out with a single wavelength filter plate, and
this makes LPS the favoured source to reduce light
pollution in the vicinity of astronomical observation
sites.
• Perhaps their only important indoor application is in
the general illumination of photographic laboratories
producting black-and-white prints.
SPECIFICATIONS FOR SODIUM VAPOUR LAMPS
(INDIAN STANDARD)
This Indian Standard was adopted by the Indian
Standards Institution, after the draft finalized by
the Electric Lamps And Accessories Sectional
Committee had been approved by the Electro
technical Division Council.
1.TERMINOLOGY
• For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions shall apply
• 1.1) Rated Wattage : The wattage marked on the lamps.
• 1.2) Calibration Current : The value of the current in which the calibration and control of the
reference ballast are based.
• 1.3) Reference Ballast : A special inductive type ballast designed for use :
• a) in testing lamps
• b) as a comparison standard for testing ballasts
• c) in selection of reference lamps. It is essentially characterized by a stable voltage current ratio
which is relatively uninfluenced by variations in current, temperature and magnetic surroundings.
• 1.4)Lamp Warm-Up Current : Lamp current measured between 5 to 15 seconds after ignition of
the lamp arc.
• 1.5) SON Lamps: Ovoid shaped sodium vapor lamps with diffusion power coating.
• 1.6) SON-C Lamps : Ovoid shaped sodium vapor lamps without any coating, that is, clear.
• 1.7) SON- T Lamps : Tubular shaped sodium vapor lamps without any coating, that is clear.
2.MARKING:
• The lamps shall be distinctly and indelibly marked with the following information :
• 2.1) Mark Of Origin : This may take the form of a trade-mark, the manufacturer's
mark or the name of the responsible seller ;
• 2.2) Rated Voltage
• 2.3) Country Of Manufacture
• 2.4) Lamp Designation( for eg. SON-T , SON-C etc.)
• 2.5) Rated Voltage or Voltage Range

3.TEST REQUIREMENTS FOR LAMP STARTING


,WARM-UP AND ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
The operating conditions for the tests for lamp starting, lamp warm-up and
electrical characteristics are that the lamp should be operated in a horizontal
position in free air and at an ambient temperature of 25 +- 5℃, on a 50 Hz
sinusoidal power supply using the specified reference ballast.
4. STARTING PULSE
• A= pulse height (as specified on the lamp data sheet)
• B=√2×the test voltage (RMS) (as specified on the lamp data sheet)
• C=A minus B
• D=90 percent of A
• E=30 percent of C
• T1=Rise time ( as specified on the lamp data sheet )
• T2=Duration time (as specified on the lamp data sheet)
5.TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

The types sodium vapor lamps covered are as follows:


a) Tubular clear- 150 W, 250 W and 400W
b) Elliptical -Diffuse Coating- 150 W, 250 W and 400W
5.1 ) LAMP STARTING TEST
• Test Voltage= 198 V
• Maximum starting time= 5s
5.2) PULSE CHARACTERISTICS
• Height = 2775+- 25V
• Wave shape : Sinusoidal
• Direction : A positive pulse during the positive half-cycle of the RMS voltage wave
• Position: Within 80-90 electrical degrees of the open circuit voltage
• Rise time- T1(max) = 0.60 micro sec
• Duration time -Ts= 0.95+- 0.5 micro sec
• Repetition rate= One per cycle
5.3) LAMP WARM-UP TEST:
• Test Voltage =198 V
• Time required to reach 50V =5 sec (max) (Lamp wattage=150W, 250 W)
• minimum at lamp terminals 4 sec (max) ( Lamp wattage =400W)
5.4) LAMP ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS:
• Objective Maximum Minimum Lamp Wattage
• Voltage at lamp terminals 100 V 115 V 85V 150 W, 250 W
• (RMS) 105V 120 V 90V Tubular 400W
• 100 V 117 V 74 V Elliptical 400W

Bulb Type Lamp Wattage(W) Lamp Current(A)

Tubular, Elliptical 150 1.8

Tubular, Elliptical 250 3.0

Tubular 400 4.6

Elliptical 400 4.45


5.5) REFERENCE BALLAST CHARACTERISTICS:
• Rated frequency= 50 Hz
• Rated voltage=220 V
• Power factor= 0.06 +- 0.005
Bulb Type Calibration Current (A) Voltage/Current Ratio

Tubular, Elliptical 1.8 99.0


Tubular, Elliptical 3.0 60.0
Tubular, Elliptical 4.6 39.0

• 5.6) LUMINAIRE DESIGN INFORMATION:


Type Of Bulb Lamp Wattage(W) Voltage Increase At
Lamp Terminals (Max.)
(V)
Tubular, Elliptical 150 5
Tubular , Elliptical 250 10
Tubular 400 12
Elliptical 400 7
5.7) BALLAST DESIGN INFORMATION
Maximum Minimum
• Pulse height for ballast design (kV) 4.5 2.8

Maximum Minimum Lamp Wattage(W)


• Lamp warm-up current for ballast 3.0 A 1.8 A 150
• (RMS) 5.2 A 3.0 A 250
• 7.5 A 4.6 A 400

5.8) LUMINOUS FLUX
Rated Wattage (W) Rated Luminous Flux (Lumens)
150 12150
250 22500
400 42300
5.8) LAMP DIMENSIONS
Type of bulb Cap Bulb Dia (Max) D Overall Length Light Centre Arc Length A Deviation of any Operatin
mm (max) L mm Length C mm mm pt. along centre g
line of Arc tube position
from Axis of cap Limitatio
n

Tubular (150 W) E40 53 211 127+- 20 58 Under As


consideration indicated
by
manufact
urer

Elliptical (150 W) E40 91 227 _ _ Under Same as


consideration above

Tubular (250 W) E40 60 260 152 +-20 65 nominal 3 degrees Same as


above

Elliptical (250 W) E40 91 227 _ _ - Same as


above

Tubular (400 W) E40 60 292 163 +- 20 85+- 5 3 degrees Same as


above

Elliptical (400 W) E40 122 292 _ _ _ Same as


above
5.9) BALLAST CHARACTERISTICS:
• The characteristic curve of a ballast, at any supply voltage between 95% to 105% of rated voltage, shall
be within the above limits.
• A typical ballast characteristic curve at rated supply voltage is shown by dotted line in diagram.
Lamp Operating Limits For The Information Of Ballast Design
Rated Objective Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum
Wattage (W) Lamp V (V) Lamp W (W) Lamp (W) Lamp V (V) Lamp V (V)

150 100 187 105 103 to 175 73 to 113

250 100 290 180 115 to 147 70 to 100

400 (Tubular) 100 475 280 122 to 151 67 to 95

400 (Elliptical) 105 480 290 72 to 106 115 to 150


BY-
• BT14EEE006 ALI ASGER KHATTAB
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• BT14EEE008 ANOUSHKA BANAVAR
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