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# CHAPTER 8: PRODUCTION

## OF POWER FROM HEAT

CHE124 CPMonterola
THE STEAM POWER PLANT
THE CARNOT CYCLE

A Carnot cycle is
consist of two
isothermal steps and
two isentropic steps.
PROBLEM 8.2

## 8.2 A Carnot engine with H2O as the working fluid operates on

the cycle shown in Fig. 8.2. The water circulation rate is 1 kg/s, For
TH = 475.15 K and TC = 300.15 K, determine:
a. The pressures at states 1, 2, 3, and 4.
b. The quality X at states 3 and 4.
c. The rate of heat addition
d. The rate of heat rejection.
e. The mechanical power for each of the four steps.
f. The thermal efficiency of the cycle.
THE RANKINE CYCLE
1→ 2 A constant pressure heating
process in a boiler.

3 sections

## 1. Heating of subcooled liquid water

to its saturation temperature.
2. Vaporization at constant
temperature.
3. Superheating of the vapor
THE RANKINE CYCLE
(isentropic) expansion.
• Production of wet steam in a
turbine.
• Superheating in the first step
improves/increase the quality
of wet steam.
THE RANKINE CYCLE

## • 3→4 Constant T and

constant P to produce
saturated liquid.
THE RANKINE CYCLE

• 4 → 1 Reversible
pumping of saturated
liquid to the pressure of
the boiler.
SIMPLE PRACTICAL POWER PLANT
Steps 2 to 3 and 4 to 1
are no longer isentropic.

## Wet steam is still produce

but the moisture content
is less than 10%.
RANKINE CYCLE CALCULATIONS

## Ws(Rankine) = ΔHs (turbine) + ΔHs(pump)

SIMPLE PRACTICAL POWER PLANT
CALCULATIONS

Turbine Pump
ή=Ws/Qboiler
Ws = Ws(turbine) + Ws(pump)

Ws = ΔH (turbine) + ΔH(pump)
PROBLEM 8.1
QUIZ
THE REGENERATIVE CYCLE
CALCULATIONS IN
REGENERATIVE CYCLE
ENTHALPY AND ENTROPY AS FUNCTION OF
TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE FOR LIQUID
PERRY P4.13
ENTHALPY AND ENTROPY AS
FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND
PRESSURE FOR LIQUID
PUMP ΔT AND ΔS
PROBLEM 8.8 SMITH AND VAN NESS:
REGENERATIVE CYCLE
A steam power plant operating on Regenerative Cycle, as
illustrated in figure 8.5, includes just one feed water heater.
Steam enters the turbine at 650 psia and 900°F and exhausts at
1 psia. Steam for the feed water heater is extracted at 50 psia,
and in condensing raises the temperature of feed water to
within 11°F of its condensation temperature at 50 psia. If the
pump and the turbine efficiencies are both 0.78, what is the
thermal efficiency of the cycle and what fraction of the steam
entering the turbine is extracted for the feed water heater.
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINE

pipe.

of pipe.

## • In internal combustion engine heat is directly

absorbed by flue gas.
THE OTTO ENGINE
1. 0 → 1 intake stroke
2. 1→ 2 → 3 compression stroke
(2→ 3) ignition/constant volume
compression
3. 3→4→1 Power stroke
(4→1) exhaust valves open, pressure
decreases at constant volume
4. 1→0 Exhaust Stroke – the piston
moves to remove the flue gas.
THE AIR-STANDARD OTTO CYCLE

## The higher the compression ratio the more efficient the

internal combustion engine. Proof is the air-standard Otto
cycle analysis.
THE AIR-STANDARD OTTO CYCLE
• B→C cooling at constant volume
compression
• D→A heating at constant volume
• The fluid is air which is assumed ideal
with constant Cp and Cv.
AIR-STANDARD OTTO CYCLE

*r is the compression
ratio (Vc/Vd)
*The higher the
compression ratio the
more efficient
AIR-STANDARD OTTO CYCLE
PERRY PAGE 10-44
OTTO CYCLE
An ideal air-standard Otto cycle engine has a compression ratio of 8. At the
beginning of the compression process, the working fluid is at 100 kPa, 27°C
(300 K), and 800 kJ/kg heat is supplied during the constant volume heat
a) the temperature and pressure of the air at the end of each process
b) the net work output/cycle [kJ/kg], and
c) the thermal efficiency [η] of this engine cycle.
OTTO CYCLE
An ideal air-standard Otto cycle engine has a compression ratio of 10. At the
beginning of the compression process, the working fluid is at 100 kPa, 40°C
and 2000 kJ/kg heat is supplied during the constant volume heat addition
process. Determine:
a) the temperature and pressure of the air at the end of each process
b) the net work output/cycle [kJ/kg], and
c) the thermal efficiency [η] of this engine cycle.
SEAT WORK
This is an extension of Solved Problem 3.7, in which we wish to use throughout
all four processes the nominal standard specific heat capacity values for air at
300K. Using the values Cv = 0.717 kJ/kg.K, and k = 1.4, determine:
a) the temperature and pressure of the air at the end of each process [P2 =
1838 kPa, T2 = 689K, T3 = 1805K, P3 = 4815 kPa, P4 = 262 kPa, T4 = 786K]
b) the net work output/cycle [451.5 kJ/kg], and
c) the thermal efficiency of this engine cycle. [ηth = 56%]
SAMPLE PROBLEM
An ideal Otto cycle has a compression ratio of 10. Air at 100 kPa and
25°C undergoes isentropic compression and 1000 kJ/kg of heat was
transferred to air at constant volume. Assume air behave like an ideal
gas and its properties remain constant with Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg.K and ɣ =
1.4. Calculate the thermal efficiency, ɳ.
a. 0.3 b. 0.4 c. 0.5 d. 0.6
THE DIESEL ENGINE
• Higher compression ratio results
to higher TD.

## • Air fuel mixture is spontaneously

combusted ( no spark plugs).

## • fuel slowly enters the

combustion chamber at the end
of compression for it to burn at
constant pressure.
DIESEL VS GASOLINE ENGINE
DIESEL VS GASOLINE ENGINE

## 1. For the same compression ratio Otto engine has a

higher efficiency than diesel engine.
2. Diesel engine can attain higher compression ratio
compare to “preignition” limited Otto engine.
EXAMPLE 8.3
THE DIESEL ENGINE
PERRY PAGE 10-44
DIESEL ENGINE

## 8.13 An air-standard Diesel cycle absorbs 1,500 J/mol of heat (step DA

which simulates combustion). The pressure and temperature at the
beginning of the compression step are 1 bar and 20C and the pressure at
the end of compression is 5 bar. Assuming air to be ideal gas for which Cp
= 7/2R and Cv = 5/2R, what are the compression ratio and the expansion
ratio of the cycle?
DIESEL ENGINE

## An ideal Diesel engine uses air initially at 20°C and 90 kPa at

the beginning of the compression process. If the compression
ratio is 15 and the maximum temperature in the cycle is
2000°C. Determine the net work produced. Assume Cp =
1.005 kJ/kg.K and ɣ = 1.4.
a. 810 b. 930 c. 1010 d. 1414
THE STIRLING ENGINE
THE STIRLING ENGINE
VS CARNOT CYCLE
STIRLING

## Estimate the efficiency of a Stirling engine place over

a cup of coffee 70°C and the room temperature is
25°C.
a. 10% b. 11% c. 12% d. 13%
THE GAS TURBINE ENGINE
BRAYTON CYCLE
• Because turbines are
more efficient than
reciprocating engines.
combustion engine and
turbine are combine in a
gas turbine engine.
THE GAS TURBINE ENGINE
BRAYTON CYCLE
• The gas turbine is driven
by high temperature
gases.
• The compressor operates
on the same shaft as the
turbine and part of
turbines work is used to
drive the compressor.
THE BRAYTON CYCLE
THE BRAYTON CYCLE
PERRY PAGE 10-44
EXAMPLE 8.4
THE BRAYTON CYCLE
PROBLEM 8.14 VAN NESS
PROBLEM 8.17 VAN NESS
JET ENGINES
JET ENGINES
JET ENGINES
JET ENGINES WC = WT
PERRY 8TH ED PAGE 6-23
PERRY 8TH ED PAGE 6-23
SKY ROCKET IN FLIGHT
AFTERNOON DELIGHT
ROCKET ENGINES