Sei sulla pagina 1di 31

The Nature of

Reading
Developmental Reading
FAST THINKING

What is
READING
to you?
FAST THINKING

What are your


practices as a
READING
TEACHER?
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FAST THINKING

What are your


practices as a
READER?
FAST THINKING

How do your
teaching practices
help pupils in
comprehension?

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FAST THINKING

How do your
reading practices
help you
understand texts?

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
WHAT IS READING?
. . . a dynamic process in which the
reader interacts with the text to
construct meaning. Inherent in
constructing meaning is the reader’s
ability to activate prior knowledge, use
reading strategies, and adapt to the
reading situation.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
WHAT ARE THE COMPONENTS OF THE READING PROCESS?

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
THREE MODELS OF READING

TOP-DOWN INTERACTIVE BOTTOM-UP


concept-driven both concept and text-driven
text-driven
emphasizes the emphasizes both emphasizes
reader reader and material material being read
emphasizes emphasizes both emphasizes
comprehension comprehension and decoding
decoding
instruction tends to instruction tends to instruction tends to
be holistic, be balanced, allows be skills-oriented;
literature-based, for various forms of grouping by ability
flexible in grouping grouping
strategies
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Alternative Views About Reading

1.Reading as SKILL
2. Reading as PROCESS
3. Reading as COMPREHENSION
4. Reading as DEVELOPMENTAL
5. Reading as STRATEGY

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Reading as SKILL

• While the reader’s knowledge of


language is recognized as an
integral part of reading print, reading
is viewed as a skill that is learned.
• In fact, reading is a unitary skill that
we use to process texts.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Reading as SKILL

• Whole Word Recognition • Summarizing


• Morphemic Analysis- roots, prefixes, • Noting Details
suffixes, origins
• Getting the Main
• Word Analysis in Context
• Meaning Association Idea
• Spelling Patterns (CVC, VC) • Making Inference
• Phonics (Single Letter Sound, Letter • Sequencing of
Cluster to Sound Events
• Syllabication- Two Syllables, Three
• Predicting
or more syllable segmentation,
Assigning Accents to Syllables

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Reading as PROCESS
• The reading process, also known as the
meaning-making process, provides an
explanation of “how reading happens”
(Cambourne, 1998).
• To construct meaning, readers draw on,
or sample the language information
available to them.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Reading as PROCESS
• See and perceive the symbols.
• Follow a sequence of words.
• Associate words and its meaning
• Follow grammatical patterns.
• Relate ideas/concepts to past
experiences .
• Make inferences/evaluate.
• Deal with personal interests and
attitudes that affect reading.
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Reading as COMPREHENSION

• Comprehension occurs in
the transaction between the
reader and the text.

• Reading Situation
* Purpose

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Reading as DEVELOPMENTAL
Reading is an interplay of one’s experience,
oral language, and ability to interpret written
symbols.

The relationships of three types of knowledge used in reading (Hermosa, 2002)

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Reading as STRATEGY

 Strategies are conscious, flexible plans a reader applies


to a variety of texts.
 The use of strategies implies awareness, reflection, and
interaction between the reader and the author.
 Strategies do not operate individually or sequentially, but
are interrelated and recursive.
 The goal is the active construction of meaning and the
ability to adapt strategies to varying reading demands.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
READING: Making Meaning from Print

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Alternative Views About Reading

1.Reading as SKILL
2. Reading as PROCESS
3. Reading as COMPREHENSION
4. Reading as DEVELOPMENTAL
5. Reading as STRATEGY

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Chall’s Stages of Reading Development
Source: Jeanne S. Chall, Stages of Reading Development. N.Y.: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983.

Stage 0: Pre-reading “pseudo reading”


Stage 1: Initial reading and decoding
Stage 2: Confirmation and fluency
Stage 3: Reading for learning the new
Stage 4: Multiple viewpoints
Stage 5: Construction and reconstruction

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Stage 0: Pre-reading “pseudo reading”

 6 months – 6 years
 Preschool
 Child :
- “pretends” to read,
- retells story
- names letters of alphabet
- recognizes some signs
- prints own name

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Stage 1: Initial reading and decoding

 6 – 7 years old
 1st grade and beginning 2nd
 Child learns:
- relation between letters and sounds
- relation between printed and spoken words
- to read simple text with high frequency words
- to read simple text with phonically regular words
- to use skill and insight to “sound out” new one
syllable words.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Stage 1: Initial reading and decoding

 The level of difficulty of language read


(reading comprehension) by the child is
much below the language understood
when heard (listening comprehension).
 At the end of Stage 1, most children can
understand up to 4000 or more words
when heard but can read about 600.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Stage 2: Confirmation and fluency

 7– 8 years old
 2nd and 3rd grade
 Child reads:
- simple, familiar stories and selections
- with increasing fluency
- sight vocabulary and meaning context in
the reading of familiar stories and
selections.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Stage 2: Confirmation and fluency

 At the end of Stage 2, about 3000


words can be read and understood
and about 9000 are known when
heard.

 Listening is still more effective than


reading.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Stage 3: Reading for learning the new

 9-13 years old


 4th – 8th grade
 Intermediate 4th – 6th
(Phase A)
 Junior high school 7th – 9th
(Phase B)
 Reading to learn

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Stage 3: Reading for learning the new

 At beginning of Stage 3, listening


comprehension of the same material
is still more effective than reading
comprehension.
 By the end of Stage 3, reading and
listening are about equal for those
who read very well, reading may be
more efficient.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Stage 4: Multiple viewpoints

 15–17 years old


 10th–12th grade
 Reading widely from a broad
range of complex materials
(expository and narrative)

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
Stage 4: Multiple viewpoints

 Reading comprehension is better


than listening comprehension of
materials of difficult content and
readability.
 For poor readers listening
comprehension may be equal to
reading comprehension.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
FAST
FASTTHINKING
Stage 5: Construction and reconstruction
THINKING
FAST THINKING

 18+ years old


 College and beyond
 Reading for one’s own needs and
purposes (professional and personal);
- serves to integrate one’s knowledge
with that of others,
- to synthesize one's knowledge
- to create new knowledge.

DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
“It is not enough to simply
teach children to read; we have to
give them something worth
reading. Something that will stretch
their imaginations - something that
will help them make sense of their
own lives and encourage them to
reach out toward people whose
lives are quite different from their
own.”
- Katherine Patterson
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION