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An Introduction
Space Exploration

 Space Exploration: is the use of astronomy and space

technology to explore outer space.
 Physical exploration of space is conducted both by human
spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft.
 Astronomy, or the observation of objects in space set the stage for
exploration, it was the development of large liquid-fueled rocket
engines during the early 20th century however, that allowed
physical space exploration to become a reality.
Rationale for Space Exploration

• Common rationales for exploring space include:

 advancing scientific research

 Uniting the world

 ensuring the future survival of humanity

 developing military and strategic advantages against other

Historical Background
 1st space advances were made by German scientists
during WWII while testing the V2 rocket
 After the war, the Allies used German scientists & research to
continue space research
 Early exploration was driven by a “space race” between
the USSR & the U.S. in the Cold War
Space Race
 Cold War
 Tension between the U.S. & Soviet Union
 Each country wanted to prove their dominance in anything &
everything… including space
 This led to competition between the two countries in space
which became known as the Space Race
 A dangerous technological gap between the U.S. & USSR
Space Race

Soviet Union U.S.

 Launch Sputnik Oct. 4, 1957  1st scientific exploration from space =
 1st man-made object to orbit cosmic radiation experiment on a V2
Earth rocket 5-10-1946
 Soviet 1st’s (led early)
 1st living being in orbit 1957  1st images of Earth taken from space
followed the same year
 1st human space flight (Yuri
Gagarin aboard Vostok 1)
 1st animal experiment saw fruit flies
lifted into space in 1947
 1st spacewalk (Aleksei
Leonov) 1965
 1st moon landing by Apollo 11 on
 1st automatic landing on July 20, 1969
another celestial body in 1966
 1st space station (Salyut 1) in
Sputnik 1
Yuri Gagarin – April 12, 1961 Russia

The spacecraft completed one orbit around the globe, lasting about 1
hour and 48 minutes. Gagarin's flight resonated around the world; it was
a demonstration of the advanced Soviet space program & it opened an
entirely new era in space exploration: human spaceflight
Alan Shepard
The U.S. first launched a person into space with Shepard’s suborbital flight.
John Glenn

Orbital flight was achieved by the U.S. when John Glenn orbited the Earth on February 20, 1962.
Buzz Aldrin & Neil Armstrong

1st men on the moon.


 U.S. agency responsible for the nation's public space

 Established by the National Aeronautics & Space Act in
 A year after the Soviet’s launched Sputnik
 NASA has led U.S. efforts for space exploration ever since,
resulting in the Apollo missions to the Moon, the Skylab
space station, and later the Space Shuttle
Pros/Cons of Space Travel?
Varying Viewpoints Regarding
Space Exploration
The Pros The Cons
 International cooperation  Too costly
 Biological research  Environmental waste
benefits entire human race (space junk)
 Human achievement  Problems on Earth need
 Future colonization and to be fixed first
tourism  Too dangerous
Should These Programs Continue?
 NASA's 2007 budget was $16.25 billion. Let's put this amount in
The department of defense budget in 2007 was $609 billion.
The department of homeland security 2007 budget was $652 billion.
The national budget in 2007 was $2,784 billion. The amount of this budget
spent on NASA was 0.58%.
A B-2 stealth bomber costs taxpayers $2.2 billion.
The New Horizons mission to explore the dwarf planet Pluto will cost
$650 million.
Task Force Questions
 Environmental Issues:
 Political Issues:  5. Who do you think should be
 1. Who do you think owns responsible for protecting space
space? environments from alteration by
humans? Why?
 2. Who should determine what
goes on in space? Why?  6. Who is responsible for cleaning
up space junk? Why?
 Finance/Cultural:
 Safety Issues:
 3. Is it right to spend tax
dollars on space? Why/why  7. Who should be responsible for
not? injuries caused to astronauts? Why?
 4. Do we have the right to  8. Should safety of astronauts (as
alter materials in space to meet well as people on Earth) be a
our needs? Explain. primary concern in space
exploration? Why?