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Bus Impedance Matrix

Zbus
What is the Bus Impedance Matrix?

• It is the square matrix obtained


by inverting the bus
admittance matrix.
• It is important and very useful
in making fault calculations.

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What is the Bus Impedance Matrix?

• It has two parts:


–The impedance elements on the
principal diagonal are called driving-
point impedance of the nodes.
–The off-diagonal elements are
called the transfer impedances of
the nodes.

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What is the Bus Impedance Matrix?

• It has two parts:

Driving-Point Transfer
Impedances Impedances

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What is the Bus Impedance Matrix?

• Equation:

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?

• Two possible methods:


–Inverting the Ybus
–Direct determination

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• First Method: Invert Ybus with matrix inversion
– Example: Find the inverse of the following matrix.

– First, I write down the entries the matrix A, but I write


them in a double-wide matrix:

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• First Method: Invert Ybus with matrix inversion

– In the other half of the double-wide, I write the identity


matrix:

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• First Method: Invert Ybus with matrix inversion
– Now I'll do matrix row operations to convert the left-hand side of the double-wide
into the identity. (Similar to Gauss-Jordan in Numerical Methods)

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• First Method: Invert Ybus with matrix inversion

– Now that the left-hand side of the double-wide


contains the identity, the right-hand side contains the
inverse. That is, the inverse matrix is the following:

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination

– Formulate a matrix for a single bus connected to the


reference bus.

– Complete Zbus by modifying the matrix and adding the


impedances one by one.

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination
– Example:

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination
1. Obtain a matrix from Bus 1 and Reference node.

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination
Add the other impedances to the matrix one by one
using:

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination
2. Adding j0.2 to the existing Zbus.

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination
3. Adding j0.3 to the existing matrix.

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination
4. Adding j1.5 to the existing matrix.

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination
5. Since the matrix is now 4X4, the fourth row and column elements
are eliminated to preserve a 3X3 matrix since there are only
three buses. It is done using Node Elimination method.

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination
The matrix is now 3X3 which means all 3 buses are
accounted for. So, to add the remaining impedances
use:

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination
6. Adding j0.15 which is between buses 2 and 3 to the
existing matrix.

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How to Formulate the Bus
Impedance Matrix?
• Second Method: Direct Determination
7. Since the matrix is now 4X4, the fourth row and column elements
are eliminated to preserve a 3X3 matrix since there are only
three buses. It is done using Node Elimination method.

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