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2 visualizzazioni24 pagineFinal year presentation

Aug 16, 2019

B.E Project SEM 8 GrouP 10

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Final year presentation

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0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

2 visualizzazioni24 pagineB.E Project SEM 8 GrouP 10

Final year presentation

© All Rights Reserved

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B.E Project : (Production Engineering)

Mohit Baranwal – BE/10301/15

8th Semester

Prerna Esther Kiro – BE/10314/15

Contents

Introduction

Objectives of the Project

Methodology

Results and discussions

Conclusions

References

Introduction

Logistics is often defined as the art of bringing the right amount of the right product to the

right place at the right time.

The efficiency of the logistic system is influenced by many factors; one of them is to decide

the number of DCs, and find the good location to be opened, in such a way that the

customer demand can be satisfied at minimum DCs’ opening cost and minimum shipping

cost.

Supply chain management goals include transportation network design, plant/DC location,

production schedule streamlining, and efforts to improve order response time.

Transportation network design is one of the most important fields of SCM. It offers great

potential to reduce costs and to improve service quality.

The problem aims to find out the optimum location of the Distribution Center.

Introduction to Problem

The problem of project is mainly about the cost reduction through route

optimization of the logistics operation. Mainly we are using the application

of Data science in this field for optimization. For understanding the

problem, a brief description is below.

We have a Data set which consists the data about the destination and its

pin code. The destination is the location of customer. So, we are using the

simple regression analysis for finding the best fitted line in the data points.

After that, Genetic algorithm is used for getting the optimal solution from

the set of solution. The whole genetics algorithm analysis gives the parent

and the generated offspring from parent which results to the optimality.

Objective

such that the Cost of transportation is minimum using the regression

analysis and genetic algorithm analysis on the data set.

1. Implementation of Regression Analysis: The best fitted line is

obtained on the data set which gives the range of probable

locations of Distribution Center.

2. Optimization by using Genetic Algorithm: The probable locations

so obtained is then passed through the algorithm which iterates

and gives the optimum location in the end.

Methodology

Literature

Data Gaining

Review

Data

Analysis Tools(Excel, R, Python)

Analysis/Interpretation

Regression Analysis Genetic Algorithm

Conclusions.

Summary of Data

The data set consists of the information about the total delivery happened between a warehouse and different location of

the India. The raw data contain many information but the relevant are only about the destination pin code. The raw data

has 189986 observation.

The raw data summary is obtained in R:

The above figure gives the details about the raw data. It has destination, destination pin code,

mode of transport, city, state etc.

After removing the missing pin code from the data, we have 123276 observation in which various pin code have many

deliveries. Considering single pin code for the important data point we have 6780 distinct data points which are actually

the pin code of the destination.

Summary of Data

Summary of Data

Location Analysis: Simple Regression

This concept is used to get the best line between the scattered data set which gives the best

relationship between these points. This is a simple regression analysis, the data on the charts are

scattered. These points may or may not form a straight line which would have the least distance

from other scattered points. If no such line is visually generated, regression analysis uses the least

square method to generate a best fit line among the points. The line so formed has the minimized

squared distance of all the points to the line. The equation of line can be obtained by getting the

relationship between the dependent and independent variable. Since, our data set mainly has

latitude and longitude of the destination. So, the basic structure of the formula of the line is:

Location Analysis: Simple Regression

Optimization: Genetic Algorithm

This concept is used to generally obtain the global optima instead of local one and in our case

in each generation the fitness value is monitored and the offsprings are generated by using

crossover and mutation and Initial population is selected using roullete wheel selection

process.

After generating some random coordinates on best fit line their fitness are calculated and

members having good fitness are selected and then the offsprings are generated.

And instead of using a single line only we have taken a bandwidth to increase the probability

of valid offsprings and the value of bandwidth is 0.2 in our case.

Optimization: Genetic Algorithm

y axis is longitude

Optimization: Genetic Algorithm

For the generation of offspring every parent coordinate is converted into it’s binary

equivalent

1. An array of individual distances was created from each point on line to every point of

locations

2. Now demand is multiplied to their respective distances(cost) and then summed up to

give total cost.

3. A fitness function is defined which is inverse of cost function for giving the idea of

goodness of quality of result.

4. Fitness value is calculated for each of the cost and sorted in descending order.

5. Now for the initial selection of parents the roulette wheel method is used.

6. We calculated the relative fitness value which is = fitness [ i ] /sum(fitness).

7. Now created a bin of cumulative relative fitness.

8. Now a random number is generated between (0,1).

9. Correspond to each random no. there is a fitness value which ultimately gives us the

coordinate of the parent responsible for it.

Optimization: Genetic Algorithm

Now the Crossover begins:

For the crossover to happen every parent should be on the same page and for that to happen following

processes are followed:

1. Conversion of each coordinates of parent from decimal to whole number.

2. Now that whole number is converted into its binary equivalent.

3. Then binary of x and y coordinates are concatenated with each other.

4. A random number is generated in between 0 to length of concatenated pair.

5. A cut is made in the binary string in pair of concatenated binary number and from that cut the right-

hand elements were swapped to generate the offspring.

6. From that offspring binary values, the coordinates of corresponding offspring are generated.

For an offspring to be a valid one the conditions are as follows:

1. New coordinates ordinate must be in range of latitude values of Jharkhand data.

2. It must lie in between the bandwidth.

3. For 2nd condition to satisfy we used simple property of line that if a point is in between 2 lines then

the values coming from 2 lines putting that point must be of opposite sign.

Model Formulation

Objective Function:

We are minimizing the cost of transportation but we didn’t have anything as such cost but we do have distances

between the location so we took the distances as disguise of cost and It depends directly and varies linearly with

distance.

Model Formulation

Crossover Technique : The crossover is done to explore new solution space and crossover operator corresponds to

exchanging parts of strings between selected parents.

Mutation: Done to prevent the premature convergence and explore the new solution space .We are trying to

implement and compare 2 types of mutation technique Insert mutation and Swap Mutation.

Results and Discussions

With the implementation of simple linear regression and Genetic Algorithm to the general set of

solution, the optimal solution obtained is by iterating for next two generations.

Fitness Value:

Fig: Fitness value of the offspring. Fig: Fitness Value of the parent.

The Fitness value of offspring and the offspring determines how good the solution with respect to the

problem is. Individual having higher fitness value is termed good as it gets prevented from the gene

convergence. Most of the times the offspring fitness value is higher than the parent individual.

Results and Discussions

Cost of Offspring and Parent.

Fig: Cost of the Offspring(child) i.e. the cost Fig: Cost of the Parent i.e. the cost

of the probable Distribution Center to destiantion of the probable distribution center

point after final iteration to destination point after initial iteration.

The above two figure is the minimum cost of the offspring and the parent individual in the

ascending order. With the crossover, the offspring so obtained has the solution better than the

parent individual.

Results and Discussions

As from the figure the optimum cost of the parent chromosomes is 1135.88 unit and

the optimum cost of the offspring is 1115.80 unit. Hence, this shows that the iteration

done results to the optimality.

Since we are iterating only for few generations, the result obtained is only optimum

among the all iterations. The more iteration takes place, the solution reaches more

closer to optimality.

Results and Discussions

Conclusions

In the recent times the computational power has increased exponentially which opens a door for better

optimization problems in field of supply chain management by the use evolutionary optimization

algorithms.

Our Project is just a small demonstration of that and lot of companies currently started to implement these

technologies in their problems.

There is lot of scope of further work in our project and there are many other variables left that one should

consider before implementing it to real world like:

1. Mode of Transport.

2. Weight of parcel that is being transported.

3. Order in which transfer is being made.

4. Variable Demand etc.

In our project we iterated it to 2 generations and one can increase the number of generations to get more

optimal result.

One can also change the method of crossover and mutation and initial selection as well to see various

changes in result.

One can also make it to 2 stage multiple distribution center problem like more than 1 DC to optimize the cost

and 2 stage means from warehouse to distribution center then from Distribution center to Customer.

References

REFERENCES

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chain. Research paper. Department of energy and technology, Swedish university of agricultural sciences, Box 7032, 750 07

Uppsala Sweden.

[2] . Min Huang, Wei Tong, Qing Wang, Xin Xu and Xingwei Wang (2006) Immune Algorithm based routing optimisation

in fourth party logistics. Sheraton Vancouver wall centre hotel, Vancouver B. C. Canada.

[3] . N. H. Moin and H. Salhi (2006) Inventory routing problem: A logistical overview. University of Malaya, Kuala

lumpur, Malaysia and the university of Kent, Kent, UK.

[4] . Erhan Kutanoglu and Divi Lohiya (2007). Integrated inventory and transportation mode selection: A service parts

logistics system. Graduate program in operations research and industrial engineering, department of mechanical engineering,

the University of Texas at Austin, United States.

[5] Vishv Jeet, Erhan Kutanoglu and Amit Partani (2008) logistics network design with inventory stockings for low

demand parts: Modelling and optimization. Axioma, Inc., Atlanta, GA, USA, Graduate program in operations research and

industrial engineering, University of Texas at Austin, United States and Wellington Management company, Boston, USA.

[6] Mahmoud Moustafa El- Sherbiny (2012) Alternate mutation based artificial immune algorithm for step fixed charge

transportation problem. Operations research department, Institute of statistical studies and research (ISSR), Cairo University

Egypt.

[7] Ann Campbell, Lloyd Clarke, Anton Kleywegt, Martin Savelsbergh (1997) The Inventory Routing problem. The

logistics Institute, School of Industrial and systems engineering, Georgia Institute of technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0305.

THANK YOU