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Early Tourism

REFERENCE: Principles of Tourism I

Zenaida Lansangan-Cruz Ph.D.
19th Century
• The term “Tourism” was first used.
• Derived from the Hebrew word, which means
studying, learning, searching.
Old Testament
• Traced its ancestry from the Noah’s Ark and
considered as first large-scale operator
although the passengers are mostly animals.
Book of Ezekiel chapters 26 and 27
• It was also traced in these chapters and
describe trade and commerce in ancient Tyre
and recount the travels abroad by merchants.
Early Tourism
• Travel for Business
• Religious Travel
• Invention of money, writing and wheel that has facilitated
travel and exchange of goods.

• Toured the Mediterranean as traders.
Greeks and Romans
• Well-known traders as their respective empires
increased travel became necessary. In 776 BCE
Olympic Games was also held and used by rich
Romans to travel for private purposes such as
enjoyment and to visit friends and relatives.
• Roman travellers was largely aided by improvement
in communications, first class roads and
inns(Forerunners of Modern Hotels.)
• By employing relays of horses, distance of 100 miles
or more could be covered in one day. In between
distance of 6 miles were mutations or stables where
horses could be change.
• English pilgrims where required to obtain to carry
permits, the forerunner of the modern passport.
Medieval Period
• Travel declined. Travel derived from the word
“Travail” has become burdensome, dangerous,
and demanding at this time. After the decline of
the Roman Empire in the 5th century, roads were
not maintained and they became unsafe. Thieves
inflicted harm on those who dared to travel.
• The only ones who travelled were Crusaders and
Renaissance and Elizabethan Eras
• A few renowned universities was developed so
that travel for education was introduced largely
by British. In 16th Century travel for education
became popular.
• Under Elizabeth I, young men seeking positions in
court were encouraged to travel to the continent
to widen their education and that the education
of gentlemen should be completed by a “Grand
Tour” of the cultural centers of the continent
which lasted for 3 years.
• Pleasure-seeking young men of leisure
travelled predominantly through France and
Italy to enjoy the cultures and social life of
Europe with Venice, Florence, and Paris as the
key attractions. By the end of 18th Century, the
practice had become institutionalized for the
for the upper class of society.
Tourism during the Industrial
• Industrial Revolution brought about major
change in the scale and type of tourism
• It brought not only technological changes, but
also essential social changes that made travel
desirable as a recreational activity.
• Travelling to countryside and seashore are
more often done during holidays which led to
the creation of resorts near industrial centers.
Modern Tourism:
Tourism in the 19th Century
• Creation of Railways the development of steam power
provided the increase mobility needed by the tourism
business. That makes travel cheap and easy with the mass
market, that is, travel by a large number of individuals.
• Travel organizers emerged the most famous of this is
Thomas Cook. His first excursion train trip was in 1841 with
570 passengers at a round trip fare
• The success of this ventured encourage him to arrange
similar excursions using chartered trains in 1866, the first
American tour.
• In 1874, he introduced “Circular Notes” which were
accepted by banks, hotels, shops, and restaurants. These
were in effect the first travellers’ checks.
Modern Tourism:
Tourism in the 19th Century
Other tour companies:
in Britain
• Dean and Dawson 1871
• The Polytechnic Touring Association 1872
• Frames 1881
In United States
• American Express founded by Henry Wells and
William Fargo
• As the 19th Century drew to a close photography,
and guide-books became popular.
Modern Tourism:
Tourism in the 19th Century
• A huge variety of guide-books which dealt
with both local and overseas travel were sold
to tourists.
Modern Tourism:
Tourism in the 20th Century
• World war I – has brought about many changes
and has boosted the demand for international
• Mass communication
• Posters and Press
• Cinema
• Radio and Television
• Railways declined due to introduction of
Motorize public transport improved road
conditions and popularity of seaside tours.
Modern Tourism:
Tourism in the 20th Century
• World War II Outcome of the war:
• Aircraft Technology – Comfortable, Safer,
Faster, and cheaper
1. Boeing 707 Jets in 1958
Modern Tourism:
Tourism in the 20th Century
• Post War: Economic Recovery
1. Private Car ownership
a. has affected coach and rail service
b. Flexible transport
c. Encourage the growth of excursions
d. Hired cars on holidays overseas has increased
Modern Tourism:
Tourism in the 20th Century
2. Due to labor negotiations and social
legislations, the length of official and paid
holidays increased.
a. Governments created more vacation time
incorporating isolated public holidays into
familiar “long weekends”. By 1970’s two
vacations a year were a common occurrence.
b. The annual holiday had become a necessity
rather than a luxury.
Modern Tourism:
Tourism in the 20th Century
3. Business and Trade prospered
a. Business travel flourished, leading to the demand not
only for individual travel, but also for conference and
incentive travel.
b. Economic power shifted as oil rich-Arab countries and
Japan arose with their Innovative Technology as well
as Europe.
c. Developing tourist-based economies of Asia have
benefited from this influx. Countries like Philippines,
Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia have
strengthened their tourist attractions to appeal to
new markets
Modern Tourism:
Tourism in the 20th Century
4. Societal trends are favorable to the continued
growth of demand. Governments of many
nations are encouraging growth of both
domestic and international tourism as a means
of job-creation, economic diversification and
source of foreign exchange.
Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
• Began when original inhabitants of the
country roamed around in search for food.
Inter-tribe travel occurred, although the mode
of travel was crude.
• A more recognizable form of tourism
appeared when the country was discovered by
Ferdinand Magellan with Galleons or Wooden
sail boats sailed between Mexico and the
Philippines during Galleon trade.
Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
• During American occupation of the Philippines,
Americans were able to reach Manila after two
weeks on board the Pan American Airways Air-
Clippers. In the 1920’s the steamship and the
airline pioneers, the “China Clipper’ and the
“Manila Clipper” brought some passengers to
Manila via Hongkong
• “Colorum” – handling of unregistered cars or
illegal use of private vehicles for public use were
tolerated by the government authorities. Since
tourism at this time was not yet developed.
Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
• Few tourist attractions and destinations emerged with the use of
public transportations. These are:
1. Manila
2. Pagsanjan Falls
3. Laguna Lake Tour
4. Taal Volcano
5. Mt. Mayon Tour
6. Legaspi Tour,
7. Baguio City
8. Banaue Tour
• Other popular tours in the South in 1920s were:
1. Cebu City
2. Zamboanga City
Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
• Before WWII there were no statistical records and
data available.
• 1947, a more orderly tourism activity started.
Steamships and airlines began to service the
Philippines from other countries.
• 1952, the first tourism association in the
Philippines was organized the Philippine Tourist
and Travel Association(PTTA) that serves both
Domestic and International travellers. Founded
by the government to promote the country’s
tourism industry.
Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
• Late 1950’s the government organized the Board
of Travel and Tourist Industry (BTTI) to regulate,
supervise, and control the tourist industry and to
subsidize the PTTA as its promotional arm. More
hotels and restaurants and entertainment
facilities were established
• 1960 – 1970’s Philippines undergoing economic,
social, political crisis which hindered the
development and promotion of tourism in the
Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
• 1972 after the declaration of Martial Law when
tourism in the Philippines prospered. This was
due to favorable conditions, such as safety of
tourists, better services and sanitation facilities,
more financial support from the government.
Thus, the Philippine’s became a “Bargain
Destination” more accommodations, food and
beverage facilities, and more airline frequencies
were established. A temporary “tourist boom”
existed in the Philippines in the early 70’s.
Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
• However, the growth in the tourism industry is
not very spectacular compared to
neighbouring countries in terms of tourist
arrivals and still at the tail-end of arrivals
compared to other Asian destinations such as
Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, Korea,
Taiwan, and Japan.
Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
• National Tourism Organization (NTO)
Has embarked on several plans and programs to
ensure the pleasant and hospitable entry, stay, and
departure of tourists as well as harmonious,
positive, and constructive development of the
tourism development of the tourism industry,
among these are;
1. Increase visitors from nearby markets like
countries in Asia more importantly, the high
spending markets like Germany.
Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
2. Increase tourism receipts through longer stay. By
creating more attractive destinations and tours,
more shopping and dining and getting just not the
budget travellers, but also the upscale markets.

3. Expand domestic tourism through more

promotions, cheaper tour packages, and new
facilities, especially the lower income segments;

4. Expand the capacity for tourism by promoting

more private sector investments;
Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
5. Improve the standard of service through the expansion of
training programs for the professionalization of the tourism
management and labor force;

6. Program major tourism infrastructure projects.

7. Engage in major tourism estate and resort development.

8. Classify facilities in tourist sites according to international


9. Strictly enforce the tour facility standards.

Origin of Tourism in the Philippines
10. Promote self-regulation within the different sectors of the tourism

11. Complete the national tourism plan and a destination tourism plan;

12. Encourage consumer advertising in selected markets;

13. Work closely with the private sector in product development and;

14. Develop and strengthen linkages with the local government s, the
private sector, and the general public through tourism councils.