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1 visualizzazioni20 paginePhi index full detail explanation

Aug 13, 2019

Infiltration curve

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Phi index full detail explanation

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Infiltration curve

Phi index full detail explanation

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Infiltration index is the average rate of loss such that the volume of

rainfall in excess of that rate will be equal to direct runoff.

infiltration and rainfall characteristics, are made by use of infiltration

indexes.

storm duration. This assumption tends to underestimate the higher initial

rate of infiltration while overestimating the lower final rate.

Infiltration indexes are best suited for applications involving either long-

duration storms or a catchment with high initial moisture content.

Under such conditions, the neglect of the variation of infiltration rate with

time generally justified on practical grounds.

1

Rainfall

Runoff

Index

Time

2

index method

• A simpler method because it assumes no variation in f(t) with time. Hence,

an infiltration index is used which assumes infiltration to be constant

through time (at mm hr-1).

• The φ-index is defined as that rate of rainfall above which the rainfall

volume equals the runoff volume. The φ-index is relatively simple and all

losses due to infiltration, interception and depression storage (i.e., storage

in pits and ponds) are accounted for, hence,

Provided i>φ through out the storm

3

W-index

The W-index is the average infiltration rate averaged over the whole storm

period, and is given by;

W-index = F/Tr = (P - Q) / Tr

The W-index is the average infiltration rate during the time where rainfall

intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity rate

Where

W = W-index in mm/hr

F = Total infiltration including initial basin recharge in mm

P = rainfall depth in mm

Q = runoff depth in mm

Tr = duration of rainfall in hour.

The W-index attempts to allow for depression storage, short rainless periods

during a storm and eliminates all rain periods during which i < fp. Thus, the

W-index is essentially equal to the φ-index minus the average rate of

retention by interception and depression storage, i.e., W < φ.

The W-index considers the initial abstraction of rainwater as well. Since it is

difficult to determine the correct values of the initial abstraction, the W-index

method is not very popular. 4

Example 1

A storm with 20 cm of precipitation produced a surface runoff of 11.6 cm.

Estimate the index of the storm if the data recorded is as follows:

Storm time (h) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Rainfall intensity (cm/h) 0.8 1.8 3.0 4.6 3.6 3.2 2.0 1.0

Solution

From the rainfall distribution, the total rainfall is 20 cm. Therefore, the

depth abstracted by infiltration is (20 - 11.6) = 8.4 cm.

With reference to Figure 1, the index is calculated by trial and error.

Trial #1

A value of between 0.8 and 1 cm/h is assumed. A mass balance leads to

+ (3.2 - ) x 1 + (2.0 - ) x 1 + (1.0 - ) x 1 = 11.6

19.2 - 7 = 11.6

Solving gives = 1.085 cm/h, which does not lie within assumed range of

0.8 and 1. 5

Trial #2

A value of between 1 and 1.8 cm/h is assumed. A mass

balance leads to

(3.6 - ) x 1 + (3.2 - ) x 1 + (2.0 - ) x 1 = 11.6

18.2 - 6 = 11.6

verifying that the assumed range for f was correct.

6

6.0

5.0

4.0

Intensity cm/h

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Time, h

7

Example 1 (2nd method)

A storm with 20 cm of precipitation produced a surface runoff of 11.6 cm.

Estimate the index of the storm if the data recorded is as follows:

Storm time (h) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Rainfall intensity (cm/h) 0.8 1.8 3.0 4.6 3.6 3.2 2.0 1.0

Solution

Infiltration of rainwater = 20 - 11.6 = 8.4 cm

The solution has to found by selecting the effective rainfall period iteratively.

Assume that the full length of the storm period, i.e. 8 hours is the effective

rainfall period.

Therefore, index = 8.4 / 8 = 1.05 cm/h

However, this value of index is more than the rainfall recorded during the

first and the eight hour respectively, which is not possible.

Therefore, by assuming again that the effective rainfall period is 6 hours, we

eliminate the chance for occurrence of any excess rainfall during the first and

eight hour respectively. 8

Example 1 (Contd)

Then for the 6-hour effective time period, the infiltration loss is

= 20 - 0.8 - 1.0 - 11.6 = 6.6 cm

Therefore,

index = 6.6 / 6 = 1.1 cm/h

This value of index is not more than any of the values of precipitation

from the second to the seventh hour of the storm, and is, therefore,

acceptable. (Figure )

9

Using Excel

Time Rainfall Intensity Index

(hr) (cm hr-1) 1.00

1 0.8 0.00

2 1.8 0.80

3 3 2.00

4 4.6 3.60

5 3.6 2.60

6 3.2 2.20

7 2 1.00

8 1 0.00

SCS Curve Number Method

(Indirect Method)

1000

10

P 0.2 S 2 S

CN

Q

P 0.8 S

(Q, P, S, in inches)

25400

S 254

CN

(Q, P, S, in mm)

• Q = runoff (in)

• P = rainfall (in)

• S = potential maximum retention after runoff begins (in)

• CN = Curve number – reflects soil and cover conditions (0-100)

11

Figure. Graphical Solution of SCS Method. 12

Advantages of SCS Method

It is computationally efficient.

The required input is generally available.

Various soil types, land use and management

practices can be conveniently handled.

13

Runoff Curve Numbers

CN is a runoff curve number and can be evaluated from

Tables developed by USSCS.

The curve number is a dimensionless number defined such

that 0 CN 100. For impervious and water surfaces CN

= 100; for natural surfaces CN < 100.

The curve number is a function of the following runoff-

producing catchment properties:

1. Hydrologic soil group

2. Land use and treatment

3. Ground surface condition

4. Antecedent moisture condition

14

1. Hydrologic Soil groups

distinct runoff-producing properties. These groups are labeled

A, B, C and D. Following is the brief of their runoff and

infiltration properties:

B Moderately low runoff potential (0.15 – 0.30 in/hr)

C Moderately high runoff potential (0.05 – 0.15 in/hr)

D Highest runoff potential (0 – 0.05 in/hr)

15

2. Land Use and Treatment

evaluated by means of land use and treatment classes.

Land use belongs to watershed cover, including every kind

of vegetation, fallow (bare soil), as well as nonagricultural

uses such as water surfaces (lakes, swamps), impervious

surfaces (roads, roof, and the like), and urban areas .

Land treatment applies mainly to agricultural land uses,

and it includes mechanical practices such as contouring or

terracing and management practices such as grazing control

and crop rotation.

A class of land use/treatment is a combination often found

in a literature.

16

3. Ground surface (Hydrologic) condition

Hydrologic condition is based on combination of factors that affect

infiltration and runoff, including:

(a) density and canopy of vegetative areas,

(b) amount of year-round cover,

(c) amount of grass or close-seed legumes in rotations,

(d) percent of residue cover on the land surface

(e) degree of roughness

Good: Factors encourage average and better than average infiltration

and tend to decrease runoff.

17

4. Antecedent Moisture Conditions (AMC)

AMC I - Low moisture

AMC II - Average moisture condition, normally used for annual flood estimates

AMC III - High moisture, heavy rainfall over preceding few days

CN(I) CN(III)

10 0.058 CN(II) 10 0.13 CN(II)

18

Example 2

Determine the weighted curve for a watershed with 40% residential

(1/4-acre lots), 25 % open space, good condition, 20% commercial and

business (85% impervious), and 15% industrial (72% impervious),

with corresponding soil groups of C, D, C, and D.

Solution

The corresponding curve numbers are obtained from SCS Tables.

Land Use Soil Group Curve Number

40 % C 83

25 % D 80

20 % C 94

15 % D 93

The weighted curve number is

CN = 33.2 + 20 + 18.8 + 13.95 = 85.95 = 86 19

Example 3

The watershed in example 2 experienced a rainfall of 6 in, what is the

runoff volume?

Solution

CN = 86 P = 6 inches

S = 1000/ CN - 10 = 1.63

Q

P 0.2 S 2

Q = 4.41 inches

P 0.8 S

20

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