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# Unit II

ANALYSIS OF BARS OF
VARYING CROSS SECTIONS
STRESSES IN BARS OF VARYING
CROSS SECTIONS
Consider the following non-uniform cross sections of a member AB, BC
and CD having cross sectional areas of A1, A2 and A3 with lengths of L1, L2
and L3 as shown in below figure.
STRESSES IN BARS OF VARYING
CROSS SECTIONS
Tensile stress in portion AB = Load / Area = P / A1
Elongation of AB, δL1 = PL1 / A1E  (1)

## Tensile stress in portion BC, σ = Load / Area = P / A2

Elongation of BC, δL2 = PL2 / A2E  (2)

## Tensile stress in portion CD, σ = Load / Area = P / A3

Elongation of CD, δL3 = PL3 / A3E  (3)

## Total Elongation (δL) = δL1 + δL2 + δL3

δL = PL1 / A1E + PL2 / A2E + PL3 / A3E

## Total Elongation δL = (P/E) [L1 / A1 + L2 / A2 + L3 / A3]  (4)

Analysis of Varying C/S – Problems
1. A steel bar is 900 mm long. Its two ends are 40 mm and 30 mm in
diameter and the length of each rod is 200 mm. The middle portion of
the bar is 15 mm in diameter and 500 mm long. If the bar is subjected
an axial tensile load of 15 kN, determine (1) Stress in each section, (2)
Total extension. [Take E = 200 * 103 N/mm2]

Given:
D1 = 40 mm; D2 = 15 mm; D3 = 30 mm;
L1 = 200 mm; L2 = 500 mm; L3 = 200 mm;

P = 15 kN = 15 * 103 N;
E = 200 * 103 N/mm2.
Analysis of Varying C/S – Problems
To find: (1) Stress in each section, and (2) Total extension.

Solution:
Stress in section AB:
Stress σAB = Load/Area = P/ ((π/4) D12) = 15000/ ((π/4)402)
Stress at section AB, σAB = 11.9 N/mm2

## Stress in section BC:

Stress σBC = Load/Area = P/ ((π/4) D22) = 15000/ ((π/4)152)
Stress at section BC, σBC = 84.8 N/mm2

## Stress in section CD:

Stress σCD = Load/Area = P/ ((π/4) D32) = 15000/ ((π/4)302)
Stress at section CD, σCD = 21.22 N/mm2
Analysis of Varying C/S – Problems
We know that,

## => δL = (15000/(200*103)) [200/A1+500/A2+200/A3]

δL = 0.245 mm
Analysis of Varying C/S – Problems
2. A round bar as shown in below figure is subjected to an axial tensile load
of 100 kN. Determine the diameter (d) of the first part if the permissible
stress in the first part is 100 MN/m2. Find also total elongation. Take E =
290 GPa.

Given:
P = 100 KN = 100 * 103 N;
D2 = 10 cm = 100 mm; D3 = 8 cm = 80 mm;
L1 = 10 cm = 100 mm; L2 = 15 cm = 150 mm; L3 = 15 cm = 150 mm;

## Stress at first portion σ1 = 100 MN/m2 = 100 N/mm2

E = 290 GPa = 290 * 103 N/mm2.
Analysis of Varying C/S – Problems
To find:
(1) Diameter of the first portion (D1), and
(2) Total elongation (δL)

Solution:
We know that,
Stress in first portion, σ1 = Load/Area = P/A1
 100 = (100 * 103) / ((π/4)(D12))
 D1 = 35.68 mm
Diameter of the first portion, D1 = 35.68 mm

We know that,
Total Elongation, δL = (P/E) [L1/A1+L2/A2+L3/A3]
=> δL = ((100*103)/ (290*103)) [100/A1+150/A2+150/A3]
δL = 0.051 mm
Analysis of Varying C/S – Problems
3. A bar of steel is 0.7 m long. For the first 0.2 m it is 25 mm in diameter, for
the next 0.3 m it is 20 mm in diameter and for remaining 0.2 m it is 15
mm in diameter. Find the change in length, if it is subjected to a tensile
load of 100000 N. The value of E is 0.210 MN/mm2.

Given:

## L1 = 0.2 m = 200 mm; L2 = 0.3 m = 300 mm; L3 = 0.2 m = 200 mm;

D1 = 25 mm; D2 = 20 mm; D3 = 15 mm;

## P = 100000 N E = 0.210 MN/mm2 = 0.210 * 106 N/mm2

Analysis of Varying C/S – Problems
To find:

Solution:

We know that,

## Change in length, δL = 1.187 mm

Practice Problems
P1) An axial pull of 40 KN is acting on a bar consisting of three sections of
length 300 mm, 250 mm and 200 mm and of diameters 20 mm, 40 mm
and 50 mm respectively. Find the stresses in each section and total
extension of the bar. Take E = 2 * 105 N/mm2.

## Stress in section σAB = 127.32 N/mm2

Stress in section σBC = 31.83 N/mm2
Stress in section σCD = 20.37 N/mm2
Total elongation (δL) = 0.2511 mm
Practice Problems
P2) A steel cylindrical rod 50 mm in diameter and 2.5 m long is subjected to
a pull of 100 kN. To what length the bar should be bored centrally so that
the total extension will increase by 15 % under the same pull, the bore
being 25 mm in diameter. Take E = 200 GN/m2.

## Length of boring = 1.12 m

P3) A compound bar ABC 1.5 m long is made up of two parts – Aluminium
and steel. The cross sectional area of Al part is twice that of the steel
part. The rod is subjected to an axial tensile load of 200 kN. If the
elongation of Al part and Steel part are equal, find the lengths of the two
parts of the compound bar. Take E for steel as 200 GPa and E for
aluminium as one third of E for steel.

## Length of Aluminium section = 600 mm

Length of Steel section = 900 mm
Deformation of a body due to Self - Weight
The expression for deformation of a body due to self weight is given as

## Where w – Weight per unit volume of the bar (N/m3)

L – Length of the bar (m)
A – Cross sectional area (m2)
E – Young’s Modulus (N/m2)
Deformation of a body due to Self - Weight
4. A copper alloy wire of 1.5 mm diameter and 30 m long is hanging freely
from a tower. What will be its elongation due to self weight? Take
specific weight of copper and its young’s modulus as 89.2 kN/m3 and 90
GPa respectively.

Given:
D = 1.5 mm L = 30 m = 30000 mm
w = 89.2 kN/m3 = 0.0892 N/mm3 E = 200 GPa = 200 x 103 N/mm2

To Find:
Elongation of the rod due to self weight.

Solution:
Elongation of the rod due to self weight (δL)= (wL2/2E)
Substituting the values,
Elongation of the rod due to self weight (δL)= 0.45 mm
Deformation of a body due to Self - Weight
5. An alloy wire of 2 mm2 cross section area and 12 N weight hangs freely
under its own weight. Find the length of the wire, if its extension is not to
exceed 0.6 mm. Take E = 150 GPa.

Given:
A = 2 mm2 W = 12 N
δLmax = 0.6 mm E = 150 GPa = 150 x 103 N/mm2

To Find:
Length of the rod (L).

Solution:
Elongation of the rod due to self weight (δL)= (WL/2AE)

## Substituting the values,

Length of the rod (L)= 30,000 mm = 30 m