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Francis Lai

De La Salle University – Manila


francis.lai@delasalle.ph
Outline
1. Background 8. Relative and Absolute
2. Definitions Addressing
3. File Extensions 9. VLookUp and
4. Shortcuts HLookUp
5. Fill/Copy 10. Errors
6. Formatting 11. Formula Auditing
7. Formulas 12. Conditional
Formatting
8. Functions
13. Simple Tables
14. Basic Charts
Background
 How long have you’ve been using Excel?
 From what department do you belong to?
 What task do you usually do with Excel?
 What do you expect to learn at the end of the training?
Definitions
 Workbook
 A workbook is a file that stores the entered related data;
a worksheet is a page of the workbook on which all the
data is held.
 Worksheet
 A workbook defines the data of the worksheets; the
worksheets allow for the data to be manipulated for
specific purposes.
Definitions
 THE Microsoft EXCEL 2007 Screen
Definitions
 Terms
 Active Cell
 In an Excel 2007 worksheet, the cell with the black outline. Data is
always entered into the active cell.
 Column Letter
 Columns run vertically on a worksheet and each one is identified by
a letter in the column header.
 Formula Bar
 Located above the worksheet, this area displays the contents of the
active cell. It can also be used for entering or editing data
and formulas.
 Name Box
 Located next to the formula bar, the Name Box displays the cell
reference or the name of the active cell.
Definitions
 Terms Continued
 Row Numbers
 Rows run horizontally in a worksheet and are identified by a number
in the row header.
 Cell Reference
 Together a column letter and a row number create a cell reference.
Each cell in the worksheet can be identified by this combination of
letters and numbers such as A1, F456, or AA34.
 Sheet Tabs
 By default there are three worksheets in an Excel file.
 The tab at the bottom of a worksheet tells you the name of the
worksheet - such as Sheet1, Sheet2 etc.
 Switching between worksheets can be done by clicking on the tab of
the sheet you wish to access.
 Renaming a worksheet or changing the tab color can make it easier
to keep track of data in large spreadsheet files.
File Extensions
*.xls
for Excel files created or viewable and fully compatible by
users using Excel 97-2003 products. Everyone should be able
to read these files.

*.xlsx
for Excel files created using Excel 2007.
Files created using this file extension are not compatible with
users using Excel 97-2003 products
File Extensions
*.pdf
Excel files can now be saved as a light-weight file that
can be opened by any pdf viewer i.e. Adobe Pdf Reader,
Foxit Reader, Google Chrome, etc.
Shortcuts
Worksheet, Workbook and Cell Navigation

Shortcut Key Effect

CTRL+9 Hides the selected rows.

CTRL+0 Hides the selected columns.

CTRL+SHIFT+( Unhides any hidden rows within the selection.

CTRL+SHIFT+) Unhides any hidden columns within the selection.

PGDN Moves one screen down in a worksheet.

ALT+PGDN Moves one screen to the right in a worksheet.

PGUP Moves one screen up in a worksheet.

ALT+PGUP Moves one screen to the left in a worksheet.


Shortcuts
Worksheet, Workbook and Cell Navigation
Shortcut Key Effect
Moves to the beginning of a row in a worksheet. Moves to
the cell in the upper-left corner of the window when scroll
HOME
lock is turned on. Selects the first command on the menu
when a menu or submenu is visible.
CTRL+HOME Moves to the beginning of a worksheet.
Moves to the cell in the lower-right corner of the window
END when SCROLL LOCK is turned on. Also selects the last
command on the menu when a menu or submenu is visible.
Moves to the last cell on a worksheet, in the lowest used row
CTRL+END of the rightmost used column. If the cursor is in the formula
bar, CTRL+END moves the cursor to the end of the text
CTRL+N Creates a new, blank workbook.
CTRL+F4/W Closes the selected workbook window.
Shortcuts
Worksheet, Workbook and Cell Navigation
Shortcut Key Effect
SHIFT+F11/ALT+SHIFT+F1 Inserts a new worksheet.
Rename the current sheet (Format menu,
ALT+O,H,R
Sheet submenu, Rename command).
Move or copy the current sheet (Edit menu,
ALT+E,M
Move or Copy Sheet command).
Delete the current sheet (Edit menu, Delete
ALT+E,L
Sheet command).
Switches between worksheet tabs, from right-
CTRL+PGDN
to-left.
Switches between worksheet tabs, from left-
CTRL+PGUP
to-right.
Shortcuts
Worksheet, Workbook and Cell Navigation
Shortcut Key Effect
Displays the Insert dialog box to insert blank
CTRL+SHIFT+PLUS(+)
cells.
Displays the Delete dialog box to delete the
CTRL+MINUS(-)
selected cells.
Selects the entire worksheet. If the worksheet
contains data, CTRL+A selects the current
region. Pressing CTRL+A a second time selects
CTRL+A
the current region and its summary rows.
Pressing CTRL+A a third time selects the entire
worksheet.
CTRL+SPACEBAR Selects Entire Column
SHIFT+SPACEBAR Selects Entire Row
Shortcuts
Cell Manipulation
Shortcut Key Effect
Edits the active cell and positions the insertion point at
the end of the cell contents. It also moves the insertion
F2
point into the Formula Bar when editing in a cell is turned
off.
SHIFT+F2 Adds or edits a cell comment.
ENTER Completes a cell entry and selects the cell below
SHIFT+ENTER Completes a cell entry and selects the cell above.
CTRL+ENTER Completes a cell entry and stays in the same cell
ALT+ENTER Starts a new line in the same cell
CTRL+; Enters the current date.
CTRL+SHIFT+: Enters the current time.
Shortcuts
Cell Manipulation
Shortcut Key Effect
Inserts the contents of the Clipboard at
the insertion point and replaces any
CTRL+V selection. Available only after you have
cut or copied an object, text, or cell
contents.
Displays the Paste Special dialog box.
Available only after you have cut or
CTRL+ALT+V
copied an object, text, or cell contents on
a worksheet or in another program.
Applies the outline border to the selected
CTRL+SHIFT+&
cells.
Removes the outline border from the
CTRL+SHIFT+UNDERSCORE(_)
selected cells.
Formatting
 Excel Cell Styles
Formatting
 Shortcut Key
 CTRL+1

 Found in
Home>Alignment
 Alignment
 Wrap text
Formatting
 Border

 Hide Grid
 View>Uncheck
Gridlines
 Cells with outline
borders are more
prevalent
Formatting
 Cell Type
 Numbers with
decimal
 Currency
 Date
 Time
 Fraction
Formatting
 Copy contents of Visible Cells only
 Copies visible cell contents over
hidden rows or columns
 Procedure
 Select Range/Cells
 Press F5
 Click the Special button
 Select Visible Cells Only
Formatting
 Paste Special
 Right-click>Paste Special
Formatting
Format Cells
Shortcut Key Effect
Applies the Currency format with two decimal places
CTRL+SHIFT+$
(negative numbers in parentheses).
CTRL+SHIFT+# Applies the Date format with the day, month, and year.
Applies the Exponential number format with two
CTRL+SHIFT+^
decimal places.
CTRL+SHIFT+~ Applies the General number format.
Applies the Number format with two decimal places,
CTRL+SHIFT+! thousands separator, and minus sign (-) for negative
values.
CTRL+SHIFT+% Applies the Percentage format with no decimal places.
Applies the Time format with the hour and minute, and
CTRL+SHIFT+@
AM or PM.
Fill/Copy
How to get one
You have to hover the mouse
pointer over the small square in the
lower right corner of the cell
pointer to get it.

Used for:
Copying formulas or for creating a
series of numbers, months, days,
dates or times or a custom-made
series.
To run a series (1, 2, 3 or 1%, 1.5%,
2% or 101, 102, 102) show Excel the
series you want by typing in the
first two numbers in the series.
Formulas

1 Type a formula in cell C6. Excel formulas always begin with


an equal sign. To add 12.99 and 16.99, type:
=12.99+16.99
The plus sign (+) is the math operator that tells Excel to
add the values.
Formulas

2 Press ENTER to display the formula result.


3 If you wonder later how you got this result, you can
click in cell C6 any time and view the formula in the
formula bar near the top of the worksheet.
Formulas
Math operators To do more than add,
use other math
Add (+) =10+5 operators as you type
formulas into
Subtract (-) =10-5 worksheet cells.

Multiply (*) =10*5 Excel uses familiar


signs to build formulas.
Divide (/) =10/5

As the table shows, use a minus sign (-) to subtract, an asterisk (*) to multiply, and
a forward slash (/) to divide.

Remember to always start each formula with an equal sign.


Formulas
To add up the total of
expenses for January,
you don’t have to type
all those values again.

Instead, you can use a


prewritten formula
called a function.

To get the January total, click in cell B7 and then:


1 On the Home tab, click the Sum button in the Editing group.
2 A color marquee surrounds the cells in the formula, and the formula appears in
cell B7.
Formulas
To add up the total of
expenses for January,
you don’t have to type
all those values again.

Instead, you can use a


prewritten formula
called a function.

To get the January total, click in cell B7 and then:


3 Press ENTER to display the result in cell B7: 95.94.
4 Click in cell B7 to display the formula =SUM(B3:B6) in the
formula bar.
Formulas
B3:B6 is the
information, called the
argument, that tells
the SUM function what
to add.

By using a cell reference (B3:B6) instead of the values in those cells, Excel can
automatically update results if values change later on.

The colon (:) in B3:B6 indicates a cell range in column B, rows 3 through 6. The
parentheses are required to separate the argument from the function.
Formulas
 AutoSum Function
 ALT+PLUS(+)
Formulas
 Show Formula
 CTRL + TILDE(`)
 *Grave accent can be found on the tilde “~” key.
Functions
 AVERAGE  ROUND
 MAX  IF
 MIN  SUMIF
 COUNT  COUNTIF
 CONCATENATE  NOW
 FREQUENCY  TODAY
 INT  TRIM
Functions
 AVERAGE
 Averages the values from the selected range of cells
 Blank cells are not included

 MIN
 Returns the lowest value from a range of cells

 MAX
 Returns the highest value from a range of cells
Functions
 COUNT
 Returns the number of selected cells

 CONCATENATE
 Combines 2 or more cell values into a single cell

 FREQUENCY
 Return the numbers of entries based on particular set of
values
Functions
 INT
 Returns the integer value of cell

 ROUND
 Rounds off a decimal number to the specified decimal
point
 Other Variations
 RoundUp
 Round Down
Functions
 IF
 Function that evaluates a statement or test condition if
TRUE or FALSE.
 Returns TRUE or FALSE value.

 SUMIF
 Function that does summation on a set of values from a
range based on condition

 COUNTIF
 Returns the number of entries from the selected cell
with the specified test condition
Functions
 NOW
 Returns the value of current Date and Time
 Based on computer’s System Date and Time

 TODAY
 ONLY returns the value of current Date
 Also based on computer’s System Date

 TRIM
 Removes excess white spaces in cells containing words
Find more functions
Excel offers many other
useful functions, such
as date and time
functions and
functions you can use
to manipulate text.

To see all the other functions:


1. Click the Sum button dropdown in the Editing group
on the Home tab.
2. Click More Functions in the list.
3. In the Insert Function dialog box that opens, you can
search for a function.
Find more functions
Excel offers many other
useful functions, such
as date and time
functions and
functions you can use
to manipulate text.

In addition to searching for a function in this dialog box,


you can select a category and then scroll through the list of
functions in the category.

And you can click Help on this function at the bottom of


the dialog box to find out more about any function.
Relative and Absolute Addressing
 Cells have a name, an address/location.
 Designated by Column Header:Row Number

 By default, formulas/functions use Relative Cell


Addresses
Use cell references
Cell
Refer to values in Cell references
references identify individual cells
A10 the cell in column A and row 10
or cell ranges in
columns and rows.
the range of cells in column A and rows 10 through
A10:A20
20 Cell references tell
the range of cells in row 15 and columns B through
Excel where to look for
B15:E15
E values to use in a
the range of cells in columns A through E and rows
formula.
A10:E20
10 through 20

Excel uses a reference style called A1, which refers to columns with letters and to rows
with numbers. The numbers and letters are called row and column headings.

This lesson shows how Excel can automatically update the results of formulas that use
cell references, and how cell references work when you copy formulas.
Reference types
Now that you’ve
learned about using
cell references, it’s time
to talk about the
different types.

The picture shows two


types, relative and
absolute.

1 Relative references automatically change as they’re copied down a column or


across a row.
When the formula =C4*$D$9 is copied from row to row in the picture, the
relative cell references change from C4 to C5 to C6.
Reference types
Now that you’ve
learned about using
cell references, it’s time
to talk about the
different types.

The picture shows two


types, relative and
absolute.

2 Absolute references are fixed. They don’t change if you copy a formula from one
cell to another. Absolute references have dollar signs ($) like this: $D$9.
As the picture shows, when the formula =C4*$D$9 is copied from row to row, the
absolute cell reference remains as $D$9.
Reference types
There’s one more type
of cell reference.

The mixed reference


has either an absolute
column and a relative
row, or an absolute row
and a relative column.

For example, $A1 is an absolute reference to column A and a relative reference to row 1.

As a mixed reference is copied from one cell to another, the absolute reference stays
the same but the relative reference changes.
Using an absolute cell reference
You use absolute cell
references to refer to
cells that you don’t
want to change as the
formula is copied.

References are relative by default, so you would have to type dollar signs, as shown by
callout 2 in the picture, to change the reference type to absolute.
Using an absolute cell reference
Say you receive some
entertainment coupons
offering a 7% discount
for video rentals,
movies, and CDs. How
much could you save in
a month by using the
discounts?

You could use a formula to multiply those February expenses by 7 percent.

So start by typing the discount rate .07 in the empty cell D9, and then type the
formula in cell D4.
Using an absolute cell reference
Say you receive some
entertainment coupons
offering a 7% discount
for video rentals,
movies, and CDs. How
much could you save in
a month by using the
discounts?
1 Then in cell D4, type =C4*. Remember that this relative cell reference will change
from row to row.

2 Enter a dollar sign ($) and D to make an absolute reference to column D, and $9
to make an absolute reference to row 9. Your formula will multiply the value in
cell C4 by the value in cell D9.
Using an absolute cell reference
Say you receive some
entertainment coupons
offering a 7% discount
for video rentals,
movies, and CDs. How
much could you save in
a month by using the
discounts?
3 Cell D9 contains the value for the 7 percent discount.
You can copy the formula from cell D4 to D5 by using the fill handle. As the
formula is copied, the relative cell reference changes from C4 to C5, while the
absolute reference to the discount in D9 does not change; it remains as $D$9 in
each row it is copied to.
VLOOKUP function
You can use the VLOOKUP function to search the first column of a range (range: Two
or more cells on a sheet. The cells in a range can be adjacent or nonadjacent.) of cells,
and then return a value from any cell on the same row of the range.

Syntax: =VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])

Example

Suppose that you have a list of employees contained in the range A2:C10. The
employees' ID numbers are stored in the first column of the range, as shown in the
following illustration.
VLOOKUP function (detailed)

Syntax

=VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])

Formula

=VLOOKUP(G41,$E$35:$I$39,5,FALSE)
VLOOKUP function (detailed)

Syntax

=VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])

Formula

=VLOOKUP(G41,$E$35:$I$39,5,FALSE)
VLOOKUP function (detailed)
1 2 3 4 5

Syntax

=VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])

Formula

=VLOOKUP(G41,$E$35:$I$39,5,FALSE)
VLOOKUP function (detailed)

Syntax

=VLOOKUP(lookup_value, table_array, col_index_num, [range_lookup])

Formula

=VLOOKUP(G41,$E$35:$I$39,5,FALSE)
Errors
Sometimes Excel can’t
calculate a formula
because the formula
contains an error.

If that happens, you’ll


see an error value in a
cell instead of a result.

Here are three common error values:

• #### The column isn’t wide enough to display the


contents of the cell. To fix the problem, you can
increase column width, shrink the contents to fit the
column, or apply a different number format.
Errors
Sometimes Excel can’t
calculate a formula
because the formula
contains an error.

If that happens, you’ll


see an error value in a
cell instead of a result.

Here are three common error values:

• #REF! A cell reference isn’t valid. Cells may have been


deleted or pasted over.
• #NAME? You may have misspelled a function name or
used a name that Excel doesn’t recognize.
Errors
 Other errors that you may encounter:
 #NULL!
 Because a space indicates an intersection, this error will occur
if you insert a space instead of a comma (the union operator)
between ranges used in function arguments.
 #DIV/0!
 The division operation in your formula refers to a cell that
contains the value 0 or is blank.
 #VALUE!
 This error is most often the result of specifying a
mathematical operation with one or more cells that contain
text.
Errors
 Other errors that you may encounter:
 #NUM!
 This error can be caused by an invalid argument in an Excel
function or a formula that produces a number too large or too
small to be represented in the worksheet.
 #N/A
 Technically, this is not an error value but a special value that
you can manually enter into a cell to indicate that you don't
yet have a necessary value.
Formula Auditing
 Under Formulas tab> Formula Auditing
 Trace Dependents
 Arrow points to cells that uses the active cell’s value
 Trace Precedents
 Arrow points from cells that are used by the active cell
Formula Auditing
 Remove Arrows
 Removes all arrows generated by Trace
Dependents/Precedents
 Error Checking
 Shows errors on the active sheet
 Shows what type of error in the cell
Conditional Formatting
 New Conditions  Manage Existing Conditions
Conditional Formatting
 In-cell Data Bars/Color Scales/Icons
Conditional Formatting
Conditional Formatting
 Changing Cell Formatting based on values
 Format Style
 2-Color Scale
 3-Color Scale
 Data Bar
 Icons
Conditional Formatting
 Changing Cell Formatting based on content
 Cell Value
 Specific Text
 Dates Occurring
 Blanks
 No Blanks
 Errors
 No Errors
Conditional Formatting
 Changing Entire Row
Formatting based on
single cell value/content
 Steps:
 Select affected cells

 Create new formatting


rule
 Use a formula to
determine which cells to
format
 In the formula bar,
=$ColumnRow>= value
Simple Tables
 Creating a Table

 Select set of data

 Format as Table

 Select the design

 If set of data already includes column labels, check the


box. If none, uncheck the box.

 Column labels can only be text, no formulas.


Simple Tables
 Quick and easy way of sorting items
 Can be used to only show specific set of data
 By Top most data
 By Bottom most data
 By Certain values
Basic Charts
 Simple Charts
 Visual representation of numerical values.
 Often more understandable than actual data
 Provides easier analysis of trends and/or performance
 Usually, requires 3 sets of data
Column Charts
 Show data changes over a period of time or illustrates
comparisons among items.
Bar Charts
 A bar chart illustrates comparisons among individual
items.
Line Charts
 Show trends in data at equal intervals.
Pie Charts
 A pie chart shows the size of items that make up a data
series proportional to the sum of the items. It always
shows only one data series and is useful when you want
to emphasize a significant element in the data.
 Pie charts have only one data series.
XY (Scatter) Charts
 An xy (scatter) chart shows the relationships among the
numeric values in several data series, or plots two groups
of numbers as one series of xy coordinates.
 Scatter charts are commonly used for scientific data
Bubble Chart
 A bubble chart is a type of xy (scatter) chart.
 It compares sets of three values.
 To arrange your data for a bubble chart, place the x values
in one row or column, and enter corresponding y values
and bubble sizes in the adjacent rows or columns.
Cylinder, Cone or Pyramid Charts
 These chart types use cylinder, cone, or
pyramid data markers to lend a dramatic
effect to column, bar, and 3-D column charts.
Basic Charts
 Designing
 Styles
 Adding Legends
 Adding Labels
 Adding Title
 Data Source
 Changing Data Source
 Switch Row/Column