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MOBILE PHONES AND HEALTH EFFECTS

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Benefits of Cell phones

 Concerns first developed in the early 1990’s


 Lawsuit by David Reynard who claimed brain tumor
caused by cell phone use
 800 million dollar lawsuit five years later
 Both lawsuits were dismissed
Cell Phone Radiation
 Portable handset (1-2 W, Avg 0.125-0.25 W).
 Base station – cell – (60 W).
 RF waves at 900 or 1800 MHz.
 Induce RF electric fields in a tissue.
 Absorption of radiated energy causes increase of the
tissue temperature.
 Power loss involved with vibration of water
molecules, movement of free ions, movement of
bound charges attached to macromolecules.
Specific absorption rate
 Power absorbed per unit mass : SAR =  E2/
 - Electric conductivity,  - Mass density,

E - Electric field strength


(SAR ε 1/d2).
Analysis of the data showed there were no
effects of exposure to GSM mobile phone
signals on the main measures of the status
of the auditory system.
It is concluded that UMTS short-term
exposure at the maximum output of
consumer mobile phones does not
cause measurable immediate effects
on the human auditory system.
Results of the meta-analysis suggest
that EMFs may have a small impact on
human attention and working memory.
In light of this meta-analysis, we conclude that
GSM-like low intensity-EMF do not seem to
cause cognitive and psychomotor effects.
Overall, no increase in risk of glioma or
meningioma was observed with use of
mobile phones. There were suggestions
of an increased risk of glioma at the
highest exposure levels, but biases and
error prevent a causal interpretation. The
possible effects of long-term heavy use
of mobile phones require further
investigation.
Kompis, (2002). Electromagnetic interference of
bone anchored hearing aids by cellular phones.

 Nokia 3210 and Motorola

dual band digital mobile


phones.

 BAHA classic 300 modes and


BAHA compact.

 33% of people indicated


presence of annoying noise.
Hayes, et al., (1997). Pacemaker interference
 980 patients with pacemakers.

 Cellular telephone held over the


pacemaker.

 Substantial proportion of pacemakers


exhibited interference in some cases
leading to symptoms.

 Frequency of interference or
symptoms depended on type of
pacemaker and type and position of
cellular telephone (ear-no
interference, chest-interference).
Redelmeier and Tibshirani, (1997), Motor vehicle
collisions.

 Case-cross over study cellular telephone calls and motor vehicle

collisions.

 Risk of collision four times greater when driver was using telephone

or soon after a call.

 Hands free mode no less risky than hand-ear mode.


Base station exposure
Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing
neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of
neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of
standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station
antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of
biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.
The 3D H/E fieldmeter ESM-100 is a patented, unique hand held measuring instrument.
It can easily measure electric and magnetic alternating fields simultaneously, independent
of their direction, and at one point. With this piece of equipment it is possible for anybody,
to carry out quick, professional and error-free measurements, right from the beginning.
Recommendations

Ban marketing campaigns of cellphones designed


solely for children.

Require proof of liability insurance coverage for


potential health risks associated with cellphones
and similar wireless devices prior to their being
offered for sale.

Review the scientific basis and adequacy of the


EMF exposure limits.
Allocate research funding, independent of industry
funds and influence, to evaluate long-term adverse
effects from cellphones and other harmful effects
from different sources of EMF, particularly where
children are concerned.

Finance a wide-ranging awareness campaign aimed


at young people to minimize their exposures to
cellphone radiation.

Require warning labels on all wireless devices.


Make available maps showing exposure to high
voltage power lines, radio frequency and microwaves
from telecommunication masts (cell towers), radio
repeaters and telephone antennas.

Publish a yearly report on the level of electromagnetic


radiation in our respective nations.
Hands free Headache
equipment prevalence
used %
Never 65.4

Some of the 54.4


Time

All of the 41.7


time

Bluetooth
The range is several metres.

The maximum transmission power may be 100 mW, but for


most applications it is 1 mW.

The frequency used is 2.4 GHz.

This creates a handsfree Set in which the SAR in the head is


considerably lower (by A factor of 100 to 1000).
Personal Actions

When on a call, use a wired headset (not a wireless


headset such as a Bluetooth), or use in
speaker-phone mode, or send text messages.

Keep the cellphone away from your body


(particularly pant/trouser or shirt pockets) or use a
belt holster designed to shield the body from
cellphone radiation, when not in use
(stand-by mode).
Avoid use in a moving car, train, bus, or in rural
areas at some distance from a cell tower (AKA mast
or base station) as any of these uses will increase
the power of the cellphone’s radiation.

Use the cellphone like an answering machine. Keep


it off until you want to see who has called. Then
return calls, if necessary, using steps 5 and 1.

Use a corded land-line phone, whenever possible,


instead of a wireless phone.
Avoid use inside of buildings, particularly with steel
structures.

Do not allow your children to sleep with a cellphone


beneath their pillow or at the bedside.

Do not allow your children under 18 to use a


cellphone except in emergencies.
 Tobacco
 Alcohol
 Diet
 General environment
 Hormones and medication
 Occupation
 Radiation
 Electromagnetic fields
 Infective and parasitic agents
 Genetic susceptibility
 Deprivation
The ESM-140 is an innovative instrument for
frequency-selective registration close to the body
of all relevant private-mobile-radio bands,
including DECT and WLAN.
T H A N K Y O U