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The History of

Prepared by: Maricel M. Villarcampo
The History Of the Philippines
• The history of the Philippines is believed to
have begun with the arrival of the first
humans via land bridges at least 30,000 years
ago. The first recorded visit from the West is
the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan on
Homonhon Island, southeast of Samar on
March 16, 1521.
• Prior to Magellan's arrival, there were Negrito
tribes who roamed the isles but they were later
supplanted by Austronesians. These groups then
stratified into: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior-
societies, petty plutocracies and maritime
oriented harbor principalities which eventually
grew into kingdoms, rajahnates, principalities,
confederations and sultanates. States such as the
Indianized Rajahnate of Butuan and Cebu, the
dynasty of Tondo, the august kingdoms of
Maysapan and Maynila, the Confederation of
Madyaas, the sinified Country of Mai, as well as
the Muslim Sultanates of Sulu and
• These small states flourished from as early
as the 10th century AD, despite these
kingdoms attaining complex political and
social orders, as well as enjoying trade with
areas now called China, India, Japan,
Thailand, Vietnam, and Indonesia, none
encompassed the whole archipelago which
was to become the unified Philippines of
the twentieth century. The remainder of the
settlements was independent Barangays
allied with one of the larger nations.
Spanish colonization
• Spanish colonization and settlement began
with the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi's
expedition in 1565 who established the first
permanent settlement of San Miguel on the
island of Cebu. The expedition continued
northward reaching the bay of Manila on the
island of Luzon in 1571, where they
established a new town and thus began an era
of Spanish colonization that lasted for more
than three centuries.
• Spanish rule achieved the political unification of
almost the whole archipelago, that previously had
been composed by independent kingdoms and
communities, pushing back south the advancing
Islamic forces and creating the first draft of the
nation that was to be known as the Philippines.
Spain also introduced Christianity, the code of
law, the oldest Universities and the first public
education system in Asia, the western European
version of printing, the Gregorian calendar and
invested heavily on all kinds of modern
infrastructures, such as train networks and
modern bridges.
Philippine revolution
• The Philippine Revolution against Spain began in
April 1896, but it was largely unsuccessful until it
received support from the United States,
culminating two years later with a proclamation
of independence and the establishment of the
First Philippine Republic. However, the Treaty of
Paris, at the end of the Spanish– American War,
transferred control of the Philippines to the
United States. This agreement was not
recognized by the Philippine Government which,
on June 2, 1899, proclaimed a Declaration of War
against the United States.
Philippine-American War
• The Philippine-American War which ensued
resulted in massive casualties. Philippine
president Emilio Aguinaldo was captured in 1901
and the U.S. government declared the conflict
officially over in 1902. The Filipino leaders, for the
most part, accepted that the Americans had won,
but hostilities continued and only began to
decline in 1913, leaving a total number of
casualties on the Filipino side of more than one
million dead, many of them civilians.
• U.S. colonial rule of the Philippines started in
1905 with very limited local rule. Partial
autonomy (commonwealth status) was granted
in 1935, preparatory to a planned full
independence from the United States in 1946.
Preparation for a fully sovereign state was
interrupted by the Japanese occupation of the
islands during World War II.
• With a promising economy in the 1950s and
1960s, the Philippines in the late 1960s and
early 1970s saw a rise of student activism and
civil unrest against the corrupt dictatorship of
President Ferdinand Marcos who declared
martial law in 1972.
• Because of close ties between United States and
President Marcos, the U.S. government
continued to support Marcos even though his
administration was well-known for massive
corruption and extensive human rights abuse.
The peaceful and bloodless People Power
Revolution of 1986, however, brought about the
ousting of Marcos and a return to democracy for
the country. The period since then, however, has
been marked by political instability and
hampered economic productivity.
• The Negritos were early settlers but their
appearance in the Philippines has not been
reliably dated. and they were followed by
speakers of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, a
branch of the Austronesian languages, who
began to arrive in successive waves beginning
about 4000 B.C.E, displacing the earlier arrivals.
• By 1000 B.C. the inhabitants of the Philippine
archipelago had developed into four distinct kinds of
peoples: tribal groups, such as the Aetas, Hanunoo,
Ilongots and the Mangyan who depended on hunter-
gathering and were concentrated in forests; warrior
societies, such as the Isneg and Kalingas who
practiced social ranking and ritualized warfare and
roamed the plains; the petty plutocracy of the Ifugao
Cordillera Highlanders, who occupied the mountain
ranges of Luzon; and the harbor principalities of the
estuarine civilizations that grew along rivers and
seashores while participating in trans-island maritime
• Around 300–700 C.E. the seafaring peoples of the
islands traveling in balangays began to trade with
the Indianized kingdoms in the Malay
Archipelago and the nearby East Asian
principalities, adopting influences from both
Buddhism and Hinduism.