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Title :- Load test and

parallel operation of
single-phase transformer.
Objectives
 To plot the load
characteristic of a given
transformer separately.
 To obtain load sharing of the
given transformer when
operated in parallel.
Circuit Diagram
List of experiment and
apparatus

Sl. No. Name Range/Type Quantity


1 Voltmeter 0-300V, MI 2 Nos.
2 1- ϕ I/p-230V, O/p 1 No.
autotransformer 0-270V, 15A
3 Transformer 1- ϕ 1kVA, 1 No.
230/115V
4 Ammeter 0-5A, MI 1 No.
5 Ammeter 0-15A, MI 3 No.
6 Ammeter 0-25A, MI 1No.
Theory
When two transformers are operated in parallel it is desirable that the secondaries
should give some voltage not only on no load but also on full load. For this
happen to their percentage reactance and resistance must be same. If one
transformer has larger rated output than the other its actual impedance Will be
less. But if the percentage resistances and reactances are equal then output Will
be in the Same proportions as their rated output. . If one transformer T1 has a
larger percentage reactance than the other T2, its load characteristics are steeper.
Such transformer delivers less than its proper share of the load. If the exciting
current is neglected in comparison with the normal rated current the equivalent
circuit of the transformer can be represented by its leakage impedance expressed
in terms of primary (or secondary). On the basis of this approximation the
equivalent circuit of two transformers in parallel can be drawn. It is assumed that
both the transformers has some transformation ratio. It can be seen that the
leakage impedance drop( Ve ) must be same for both the transformers.
Ve = I1.Z1 = I2.Z2 or I1/I2 = Z2/Z1 = Y1/Y2

Thus the individual currents are inversely proportional to the leakage


impedances or directly proportional to the leakage admittances.
Procedure
 Make the circuit connection as per fig.1(for T1).
 Confirm the connection by teacher in-charge or technician.
 Take the reading of the voltmeters V1, V2 and ammeter A2.
 Make the circuit connection as per fig.2(for T2).
 Confirm the connection by teacher in-charge or technician.
 Plot the characteristics for T1 and T2 (V2 versus load current).
 Connect the circuit as fig.3.
 Confirm the connection by teacher in-charge or technician.
 Take the reading of voltmeter V2 and ammeters.
 Plot the characteristics of T1 and T2 ( V2 versus load current
of T1 and T2) in the same graph paper.
 Keep the Variac at the zero position.
 Switch off the isolator and disconnect the circuits.
Precautions
 Polarity of transformers must be properly
checked before connecting them in parallel.
 Avoid loose wires, cables, and connections.
 Shoes must be worn at all times.
 Make changes to the experimental setup only
when the circuit power is turned off.