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CORAL

BLEACHING
AND ITS
IMPACT

GROUP 2
1-SUNNY GARG (18JE0853)
2-SURAJ GUPTA (18JE0854)
3-SURAJ PATEL (18JE0855)
4-SUREDDY AKSHAY (18JE0856)
5-SURYAKANTA INDRAJEET (18JE0857)
6-SURYANSH JAISWAL (18JE0858)
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION : CORALS
FORMATION AND TYPES OF CORAL
CORAL BLEACHING
CAUSES AND TRIGGERS
IMPACTS
PROTECTIVE MEASURES
INTRODUCTION
Corals are marin
the class Anthozo
. They typically li
many identical in
 coral "group" is
identical polyps .
animal typically o
diameter and a fe
FORMATION OF CORAL REEFS
The polyp forms the basis of life on the coral reef .
It builds reefs through the production of calcium
carbonate (CaCO3) skeleton which it constructs as it
grows .
Polyp growth is the result of a symbiotic relationship
between the polyp and zooxanthellae (algae) which rely
on photosynthesis for their growth .
The zooxanthellae provide essential nutrients to the
polyp to enable growth .
TYPES OF CORAL REEFS
Fringe Reef:- coral reefs developed continental
margins are called fringe/fringing reefs.
Barrier Reefs:- the largest coral reefs off the coastal
platforms but parallel to them are called barrier reefs.
Atoll:- a ring of narrow growing corals of horseshoe
shape and crowned with palm trees is called atoll.
CORAL BLEACHING
Normally, coral polyps live in an endosymbiotic
relationship with algae(zooxanthellae).
Coral bleaching occurs when coral polyps expel
algae that live inside their tissues due to
unfavourable conditions for symbiotic relationship.
This eventually leads to decolourization of polyps.
CAUSES/TRIGGERS OF CORAL BLEACHING
Coral bleaching may be cause by number of factors ,
the large scale coral bleaching events of recent years
have been triggered by global warming .
List of Triggers are –
1- Drastic change in water temperature.
2- Oxygen starvation caused by an increase in
plankton level as a result of overfishing.
3- Bacterial infections.
4- Change in salinity
5- Extreme low tides and exposure.
6- Ocean acidification due to elevated levels of CO2
caused by air pollution.
7- Due to exposure to oils and other chemical spills.
CORAL DEPLETION MAP
IMPACTS OF CORAL BLEACHING
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Coral reefs act as a protective barrier for coastlines by
reducing wave impact , its absence increases the damage
from storms , erosion and flooding .
Coral reefs acts as a habitat for many marine species like
sea turtles , yellow tang , sea horses etc. Destruction of
reefs leads to endangering of these species .
Economic Impact
1- Coral reefs being a natural fishery are an important
source of income for fishers , its depletion leads to
unemployment.
2- Coral reefs are great locations for eco-tourism
(Great Barrier Reef , Australia) , its depletion leads to
a huge economic loss.
3- According to Chen Et Al the commercial value of
reef decreases by almost 4% everytime coral cover
decreases by 1% .
Protective Measures
Establishment of marine sanctuaries and preserves.
Ex. – The Australian Great Barrier Reef was
designated as UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1981 ,
providing further protection to this 2,300 km long
coral reef system .
Implementation of Management Action Plans on
identified coral reef areas .