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# Caraga State University

## Theory of Errors and Adjustments

Lecture 2

Broddett B. Abatayo, GE
Lecturer
Taping Corrections
A. Correction due to Temperature: B. Correction due to Pull:

( Po  Ps) L
C t   (To  Ts) L Cp 
AE
Where;
Where;
Po = applied pull during measurement
α = coefficient of thermal expansion Ps = standard pull
(0.0000116/°C)
L = Nominal length of tape or total
To = observed temperature during measured distance
measurement A = cross-sectional area of tape
Ts = standard temperature E = modulus of elasticity of tape
Taping Corrections
• C. Correction Due to Sag: (to be D. Correction due to slope: (to be
subtracted only) subtracted only)

 2 L3 W 2L h2
Csag  2
 Cs  H  S  Cs
24 Po 24 Po 2 2S
• Where;
Where;
• ω = weight of tape per unit length S = inclined/slope distance
• W = total mass or weight of tape H = correct horizontal distance
• L = unsupported length of tape h = vertical distance at ends of tape
• Po = applied pull during during measurment
measurement
Taping Corrections
E. Reduction to Sea-Level F. Map Reading Correction

## Grid Dist. = (ground dist)(C.F.)

 h
D '  D 1   Grid Area = (ground area)(C.F.)2
 R
Where;
Where; C.F. = (reduction factor)(grid-scale factor)
D = measured distance bet. Two points
Also:
D’ = corresponding sea-level dist. Of
these points
Scale = error in map
R = ave. radius of curvature error in ground
(1-h/r) = sea-level reduction factor
h = observed height
Taping Corrections
G. Normal Pull or Tension – The required Rules for Applying Tape
pull/tension to eliminate the effect of Corrections
sag.
Tape too long:
Cp  Csag
distances
( Pn  Ps) L W 2 L 2. Subtract correction when laying out
 distances
AE 24 Pn2

## AE Tape too short:

Pn  0.204W 1. Subtract correction when measuring
( Pn  Ps)
distances
2. Add correction when laying out
distances
Prob 1 Prob 3
• When the temperature was 48°C, the • A 50 m tape was standardized and
measured distance from B to C was was found to be 0.0042m too long
318 m. The steel tape used has a than the standard length at an
standard length at 20°Cm with a observed temperature of 58 °C and a
coefficient of thermal expansion of pull of 15kg. If the same tape was
0.0000116/°C. Find the correct used to measure a certain distance
distance BC in meters. and was recorded to be 673.92m
long at an observed temperature of
Ans. 318.103 m 68 °C and a pull of 15kg, and the
coefficient of thermal expansion is
0.0000116/ °C, determine the
Prob 2 following:
• When the temperature was 3°, the 1. Standard Temperature
distance from E to F was measured 2. Total correction
using a steel tape that has a standard 3. True length of the line
length at 20 °C with a coefficient of
thermal expansion of 0.0000116/ °C.
If the correct distance from E to F is
836.5m, what was the measured Ans. 50.76 °C, 0.1348m, 674.05 m
distance in meters?

Ans. 836.665 m
Prob 4 Prob 6
• A 50 m tape having a cross-sectional • A 30m tape is supported only at its
area of 0.05cm2 has been ends and under a steady pull of 8kg.
standardized at a tension of 5.5kg. If If the tape weighs 0.91kg. Determine
the modulus of elasticity E = 2.10x106 the following:
kg/cm2, determine the elongation of 1. Sag correction
the tape if a pull of 12 kg. is applied. 2. Correct distance between the ends of
the tape
Ans. 0.003m
Ans. 0.0162m, 29.984m

Prob 5 Prob 7
• It takes 20 kg of normal tension to • A 100m tape weighs 0.0508 kg/m.
make the elongation of a steel tape During field measurements, the tape
offset the effect of sag when was subjected to a tension of 45 N,
supported at the end points. The and was supported at the end points,
tape has a cross-sectional area of midpoint, and quarter points, find
0.05cm2 and E = 2x106 kg/cm2. If the the correction per tape length due to
tape is 50m long and has a standard sag.
pull of 8kg. What is its unit weight in
kg/m?
Ans. 0.319 m
Ans. 0.0215 kg/m
Prob 8 Prob 10
• Slope distances AB and BC measure • A line was determined to be
330.49m and 660.97m, respectively. 2395.25m when measured with a
The difference in elevation is 12.22m 30m steel tape supported throughout
for A and B, 10.85m for B and C. its length under a pull of 4kg at a
Using the slope correction formula, mean temperature of 35°C. The tape
determine the horizontal length of used is of standard length at 20°C
line ABC. Assume the line AB has a under a pull of 5kg. If the cross-
rising slope and BC a falling slope. sectional area of the tape is 0.03cm2,
coefficient of thermal expansion is
Ans. 991.145m 0.0000116/°C, and E = 2x106 kg/cm2,
determine the following:
Prob 9 1. Temperature correction
• A line 100 m long was measured with 2. Pull correction
a 50m tape. It was discovered that
the first pin was stuck 30cm to the 3. Correct length of the line
left of the line and the second pin
30cm to the right. Find the error in Ans. +0.4168m, -0.0399m, 2395.6269m
the measurement in cm.

Ans. 0.45cm